TulsiHoly basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn.)
1293192709t3_ing_tulsi1.jpg Ocimum Sanctum Linn. Family Lamiaceae An annual plant, 30-60cm high, much branched; stem and branches usually purplish, sub-quadrangular; leaves 2.5-5 by 1.6-3.2cm, elliptic oblong-obtuse, pubescent on both side and minutely gland-dotted. Flowers are in racemes REGIONAL NAMES English - Holy Basil Bengali - Tulsi Gujarati - Tulsi Hindi - Kata tulsi, tuls Malayalam - Tulasi Marathi - Tulasa, Tulasi chajadha Kannada - Vishnu Tulasi, Kari Tulasi, Sri Tulsi Tamil - Thulasi Telugu - Tulasi, Krishna tulasi, kari tulasi, sri tulasi.
 






Ocimum Sanctum Linn.

 

Family – Lamiaceae





An annual plant, 30-60cm high, much branched; stem and branches usually purplish, sub-quadrangular; leaves 2.5-5 by 1.6-3.2cm, elliptic oblong-obtuse, pubescent on both side and minutely gland-dotted. Flowers are in racemes
     
                   
REGIONAL NAMES  
           
English - Holy Basil
Bengali - Tulsi
Gujarati - Tulsi
Hindi - Kata tulsi, tuls
Malayalam - Tulasi
Marathi - Tulasa, Tulasi chajadha
Kannada - Vishnu Tulasi, Kari Tulasi, Sri Tulsi
Tamil - Thulasi
Telugu - Tulasi, Krishna tulasi, kari tulasi, sri tulasi
     
                   
           

DISTRIBUTION

Found thought India.

     
                   
           

PART USED : Whole plant

 
     
           

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES


The drug has numerous pharmacological activities like hypoglycaemic, immunomodulalory, anti-stress, antiulcerogenic, anti hypertensive, CNS depressant, radioprotective, antitumour and antibacterial. Tulsi is aromatic, carminative, antipyretic, diaphoretic and expectorant. It has been found to be very effective in treatment of viral encephalitis and tropical pulmonary, eosinophilia in children. The plant is also used in snakebite & scorpion sting.

The Tulsi or holy basil is an important symbol in the Hindu religious tradition and is worshipped in the morning and evening by Hindus at large. The holy basil is also a herbal remedy for a lot of common ailments. Here're top fifteen medicinal uses of Tulsi.

1. Healing Power : The Tulsi plant has many medicinal properties. The leaves are a nerve tonic and also sharpen memory. They promote the removal of the catarrhal matter and phlegm from the bronchial tube. The leaves strengthen the stomach and induce copious perspiration. The seed of the plant are mucilaginous.

2. Fever & Common Cold : The leaves of basil are specific for many fevers. During the rainy season, when malaria and dengue fever are widely prevalent, tender leaves, boiled with tea, act as preventive against theses diseases. In case of acute fevers, a decoction of the leaves boiled with powdered cardamom in half a liter of water and mixed with sugar and milk brings down the temperature. The juice of Tulsi leaves can be used to bring down fever. Extract of Tulsi leaves in fresh water should be given every 2 to 3 hours. In between one can keep giving sips of cold water. In children, it is every effective in bringing down the temperature.

3. Coughs : Tulsi is an important constituent of many Ayurvedic cough syrups and expectorants. It helps to mobilize mucus in bronchitis and asthma. Chewing Tulsi leaves relieves cold and flu.

4. Sore Throat : Water boiled with basil leaves can be taken as drink in case of sore throat. This water can also be used as a gargle.

5. Respiratory Disorder : The herb is useful in the treatment of respiratory system disorder. A decoction of the leaves, with honey and ginger is an effective remedy for bronchitis, asthma, influenza, cough and cold. A decoction of the leaves, cloves and common salt also gives immediate relief in case of influenza. They should be boiled in half a liter of water till only half the water is left and add then taken.

6. Kidney Stone : Basil has strengthening effect on the kidney. In case of renal stone the juice of basil leaves and honey, if taken regularly for 6 months it will expel them via the urinary tract.







7. Heart Disorder : Basil has a beneficial effect in cardiac disease and the weakness resulting from them. It reduces the level of blood cholesterol.

8. Children's Ailments : Common pediatric problems like cough cold, fever, diarrhea and vomiting respond favorably to the juice of basil leaves. If pustules of chicken pox delay their appearance, basil leaves taken with saffron will hasten them.

9. Stress : Basil leaves are regarded as an 'adaptogen' or anti-stress agent. Recent studies have shown that the leaves afford significant protection against stress. Even healthy persons can chew 12 leaves of basil, twice a day, to prevent stress. It purifies blood and helps prevent several common elements.

10. Mouth Infections : The leaves are quit effective for the ulcer and infections in the mouth. A few leaves chewed will cure these conditions.

11. Insect Bites : The herb is a prophylactic or preventive and curative for insect stings or bites. A teaspoonful of the juice of the leaves is taken and is repeated after a few hours. Fresh juice must also be applied to the affected parts. A paste of fresh roots is also effective in case of bites of insects and leeches.

12. Skin Disorders : Applied locally, basil juice is beneficial in the treatment of ringworm and other skin diseases. It has also been tried successfully by some naturopaths in the treatment of leucoderma.

13. Teeth Disorder : The herb is useful in teeth disorders. Its leaves, dried in the sun and powdered, can be used for brushing teeth. It can also be mixed with mustered oil to make a paste and used as toothpaste. This is very good for maintaining dental health, counteracting bad breath and for massaging the gums. It is also useful in pyorrhea and other teeth disorders.

14. Headaches : Basil makes a good medicine for headache. A decoction of the leaves can be given for this disorder. Pounded leaves mixed with sandalwood paste can also be applied on the forehead for getting relief from heat, headache, and for providing coolness in general.

15. Eye Disorders : Basil juice is an effective remedy for sore eyes and night-blindness, which is generally caused by deficiency of vitamin A. Two drops of black basil juice are put into the eyes daily at bedtime.
     
                   
           

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :







SOIL AND CLIMATE


Thrive well on variety of soils. Rich loam to poor laterite, saline and alkaline to moderately acidic soils is well suited for its cultivation. Well-drained soil helps better vegetative growth. Water logged condition can cause root-rot and result in stunted growth. The plant can be grown under partially shaded conditions but with low oil content. It flourishes well under moderate rainfall and humid conditions. Long days and high temperatures have been found favorable for plant growth and oil production. Topical and sub-topical climate (at altitudes upto 900m.) is suited for its cultivation.
     
                   
           

LAND PREPARATION

The land is brought to fine tilth and laid out into plots of convenient sizes for irrigation. It is preferable to add 15 tonnes of farmyard manure per hectare during the preparation of land and mixed well with the soil.
     
                   
           

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

The nursery can be raised in the third week of February and transplantation is generally started by mid April. Seeds are used for propagation. Raised seedbeds of 15" x 4'9" size should be thoroughly prepared and well manured by addition of farmyard manure. About 200-300g seeds are enough to raise the seedlings for planting one hectare of land. The seed should be sown 2cm below in the nursery beds. The seeds germinate in 8-12 days and the seedlings with 4-5 leaves are ready for transplantation in about 6 weeks. The seedlings are transplanted at 40 * 40cm and 40 x 50cm to get high herbage and oil yield per hectare.
     
                   
           

WEEDING AND HOEING

First weeding is done after one month after planting and the second weeding, four weeks after the first. One hoeing after two months of planting is sufficient.

     
                   
           

MANURE/FERTILIZER

Compost/Vermi compost and organic manure is preferred.

     
                   
           

IRRIGATION

Irrigation depends upon the moisture content of soil. In summer, three irrigations per month are necessary and in rainy season no irrigation is required. About 12-15 irrigations are enough during the year.
     
                   
           

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION


The crop is harvested at full bloom. The first harvest is obtained after 90-95 days. Then it may be harvested at every 65-75 days interval. Harvesting is done usually on bright sunny days for good oil yield and quality. It is not desirable to harvest the crop if there was rain in the previous day.
     
                   
           

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Eugenol
It contains phenolics such as carvacrol and eugenol; non-phenolics such as methyl eugenol, methyl chavicol and caryophyllene, etc. The flavonoids include apigenin, luteon, vicenin-2, orientin, iso-orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, cirsilineol, isothymusin, rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid. Petroleum extract of the leaves found to contain beta-carotene, sterols and fatty acids. Triglyceride, l, 3-Dilinoleneoyl-2-palmitin also been reported.
     
                   
           

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS


Of all the Ocimum species, 0.Sanctum is most widely studied for its pharmacological properties. Traditionally, it has been used as diaphoretic, expectorant and hepatoprotective. It has been studied for its immunomodulatory, anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and radioprotective. Its anti-ulcer and anthelmintic activities also been reported. It has also been studied for chemopreventive, anti-cryptococcus and cardioprotective activities.
     
                   
           

ANALYTICAL PROFILE

TLC of Tulasi oil (obtained by steam distillation) shows eugenol and carrypphyllence RF values 0.7 and caryophy. Hence runs to solvent front giving orange brown and reddish violet respectively, standards matching with the oil at given RF of standards. Plate was developed in mobile phase Toluene: Ethyl acetate (93:7) and plate Silica gel 'G'.
     
                   
           

YIELD

About 5 tonnes of fresh herbage can be obtained twice or thrice a year per hectare.

     
                   
           

SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

The leaves of other species of Ocimum are often adulterated with the genuine drug.
     
                   
           

HOME REMEDY


Local application of tulsi juice is an excellent remedy for urticaria
     
                   
           

DOSE :-

Juice - 5-10 ml Powder - 1-3 g

 
     
           

IMPORTANT FORMULATION


Tribhuvana kirti rasa, Muktapanchamrta rasa, muktadi Mahanjana, Manasamitravataka.



 
 
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