Chirata/ Chiretta (Swertia chirata Buch-Ham.)
1253535504Chirata-Chiretta_out.jpg CHIRAITA Swertia chirata Buch. - Ham Family - Euphorbiaceae An annual herb 30-80 cm. high; leaves lanceolate acute; flowers greenish-purple. It grows naturally. Flowering & fruiting July to September REGIONAL NAMES Bengali - Chirata Gujarat - Chirata Marathi - Chirata Hindi - Chirayata Kannada - Nelaberu, Kiratakaddi Malayalam - Nelaveppa Oriya - Chireita Tamil - Nilavembu Telugu - Nelavemu DISTRIBUTION : Temperate to sub-alpine Himalayan regions of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh also seen in Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. PART USED : Whole plant. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES : The plant is bitter, equally refrigerant and thermogenic, anti inflammatory, antipyretic, sudorific and antiperiodic and is useful in all types of fevers especially chronic and intermittent fevers, inflammations, dipsia Bi burning sensation, cough, bronchitis, gastropathy, dyspepsia and skin diseases. This herb is used mostly to treat intestinal worms, bronchial asthma, burning of the body and regulating the bowels. CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION : SOIL AND CLIMATE The plant can be grown in variety of soils with sandy loam rich in carbon and humus. It can be grown in sub-temperate regions between ± 1500 to 2100m. Altitude LAND PREPARATION NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING Nursery beds are prepared in selected areas in suitable climatic conditions. Seeds are sown during May-June. After 3-4 months seedlings are transplanted in the field in rows at a distance of 45-60cm. The distance between two rows is kept about 60 cm. WEEDING AND HOEING Periodical weeding and hoeing is required in nursery and field. MANURE/FERTILIZER Compost manure or organic manure is preferred IRRIGATION The nursery beds and field after plantation should be irrigated periodically as and when required weekly or fortnightly. The plants are irrigated till it starts flowering. HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION The crop is usually ready for harvesting after 6-8 months. The plants are collected and dried in shade. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS MAJOR CONSTITUENTS Majority of the constituents are withanolides (steroidal lactones with ergostane Skelton) and alkaloids. These include withanone, withaferin A, withanolides I, II, HI, A, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, WS-J, P and S, withasomidienone, withanolide C and alkaloids viz., cuscohygrine, anahygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, anaferine, isopellatierine and 3-tropyltigloate. BITTER PRINCIPLES: Amarogentin and amaroswerin OTHER CONSTITUENTS A number of xanthone derivatives viz., chiratol, methyl bellidifolin, decussatin, 7-O-Methyl swertianin, mangiferin, swertianin, friedelin, 3-sitosterol, swertinin, chiratanin; triterpenoids viz., masilinic acid and its trisaccharide ester swericinctoside, chiratenol, gammacer-16-en-3 p-ol, 21ct-H-hop-22 (29)-en-3 p-ol, swertenol, episwertenol, pichierenol, kairatenol; secoiridoid glycosides viz., swertiamarin, gentiopicroside; alkaloids viz., gentianine, gentiocrucine and enicoflavine, thirteen amino acids, including arginine, leucine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, asparatic acid and glutamic acid. ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS In different pharmacological studies of the plant, Gentianine, an important alkaloid has shown ant psychotic activity, whereas plant secoiridoid glycoside the swertiamarin has anti cholinergic and antispastic effect on isolated duodenal and uterine smooth muscles of rats and rabbits. In addition to this, some other plant secoiridoids or their glycosides viz., amarogentin, amaroswerin and again swertiamarin are used for treatment and prevention of ulcer, gastritis and they’re by showing anti-ulcerogenic activity. Not only this, some other active chemical constituents of plant have exhibited antihepatotoxic, ami inflammatory, CNS depressant, anti malarial and hypoglycemic activities in different animal models. Analytical Profile Column micro Bondapak Ci8 (30cm * 3.9 mm) Mobile phase methanol : water (45:55) Flow rate l.Oml/min Detection UV at 235 nm Standard Preparation: Prepare a solution containing known concentrations of amorogentin (cone. Range: 10-180 microgram/ml) in methanol. SAMPLE PREPARTION Extract 3g of powdered plant material with 50% methanol on a water bath for 4 hr. Filter and evaporate the filtrate under reduced pressure and dissolve the residue in 50ml-distilled water. Extract the water layer with choioroform (3*50ml) followed by butanol (3x50ml). Evaporate the combined butanol extract under reduced pressure and dissolve the residue in 2ml methanol and make up the volume to 20 ml with methanol. Prepare further dilutions if necessary. PROCEDURE Subject known volumes (5 microlitres) of standard and sample preparations to HPLC and record the respective peak areas for amarogentin and amaroswerin in triplicate and accordingly calculate their percentages in the extract. SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS Swertia angustifolia Buch –Ham Ex D Don is the most common adulterant of S. Chirata. The bitter value of the adulterant is much inferior as compared to S. Chirata. The two plants resemble to a great extent w.r.t morphological and anatomical features. Other plants used as substitutes for S. Chirata in various part of the country include S. biamculata Hook f. and Thorns, ex Clarke, S. Chirata Royle, ex D.Don, £ densifolia, S. lawn, S. minor, S. paniculata Wall. Andrographis paniculata is also chemically different from S.Chirata is having andrographolide as the major constituent often gets substituted for or confused with S. Chirata. HOME REMEDY Paste of chirata mixed with equal quantity of sugar or honey checks vomiting and nausea. DOSE :- Powder — 1-3 g Decoction - 25-50 ml
 

CHIRAITA   
       
    Swertia chirata Buch. - Ham
 
Family - Euphorbiaceae 

  
  
  
  
 

 
  
    An annual herb 30-80 cm. high; leaves lanceolate acute; flowers greenish-purple. It grows naturally. Flowering & fruiting July to September
   
        
    REGIONAL NAMES   
    Bengali - Chirata
Gujarat - Chirata
Marathi - Chirata
Hindi - Chirayata
Kannada - Nelaberu, Kiratakaddi
Malayalam - Nelaveppa
Oriya - Chireita
Tamil - Nilavembu
Telugu - Nelavemu
   
        
    DISTRIBUTION :   
    Temperate to sub-alpine Himalayan regions of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh also seen in Uttaranchal, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.
   
    PART USED : Whole plant.   
    MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES :   
    The plant is bitter, equally refrigerant and thermogenic, anti inflammatory, antipyretic, sudorific and antiperiodic and is useful in all types of fevers especially chronic and intermittent fevers, inflammations, dipsia Bi burning sensation, cough, bronchitis, gastropathy, dyspepsia and skin diseases. This herb is used mostly to treat intestinal worms, bronchial asthma, burning of the body and regulating the bowels.
   
        
    CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE
   
   
The plant can be grown in variety of soils with sandy loam rich in carbon and humus. It can be grown in sub-temperate regions between ± 1500 to 2100m. Altitude   
        
    LAND PREPARATION

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

Nursery beds are prepared in selected areas in suitable climatic conditions. Seeds are sown during May-June. After 3-4 months seedlings are transplanted in the field in rows at a distance of 45-60cm. The distance between two rows is kept about 60 cm.

   
   
WEEDING AND HOEING   
   
Periodical weeding and hoeing is required in nursery and field.    
    MANURE/FERTILIZER   
    Compost manure or organic manure is preferred
   
    IRRIGATION   
    The nursery beds and field after plantation should be irrigated periodically as and when required weekly or fortnightly. The plants are irrigated till it starts flowering.   
        
    HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION   
    The crop is usually ready for harvesting after 6-8 months. The plants are collected and dried in shade.
   
        
    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Majority of the constituents are withanolides (steroidal lactones with ergostane Skelton) and alkaloids. These include withanone, withaferin A, withanolides I, II, HI, A, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, WS-J, P and S, withasomidienone, withanolide C and alkaloids viz., cuscohygrine, anahygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, anaferine, isopellatierine and 3-tropyltigloate.

BITTER PRINCIPLES: Amarogentin and amaroswerin
   
        
    OTHER CONSTITUENTS

A number of xanthone derivatives viz., chiratol, methyl bellidifolin, decussatin, 7-O-Methyl swertianin, mangiferin, swertianin, friedelin, 3-sitosterol, swertinin, chiratanin; triterpenoids viz., masilinic acid and its trisaccharide ester swericinctoside, chiratenol, gammacer-16-en-3 p-ol, 21ct-H-hop-22 (29)-en-3 p-ol, swertenol, episwertenol, pichierenol, kairatenol; secoiridoid glycosides viz., swertiamarin, gentiopicroside; alkaloids viz., gentianine, gentiocrucine and enicoflavine, thirteen amino acids, including arginine, leucine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, asparatic acid and glutamic acid.


   
        
    ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

In different pharmacological studies of the plant, Gentianine, an important alkaloid has shown ant psychotic activity, whereas plant secoiridoid glycoside the swertiamarin has anti cholinergic and antispastic effect on isolated duodenal and uterine smooth muscles of rats and rabbits. In addition to this, some other plant secoiridoids or their glycosides viz., amarogentin, amaroswerin and again swertiamarin are used for treatment and prevention of ulcer, gastritis and they’re by showing anti-ulcerogenic activity. Not only this, some other active chemical constituents of plant have exhibited antihepatotoxic, ami inflammatory, CNS depressant, anti malarial and hypoglycemic activities in different animal models.
   
        
    Analytical Profile
   
    Column  micro Bondapak Ci8 (30cm * 3.9 mm)
Mobile phase methanol : water (45:55)
Flow rate l.Oml/min 
Detection UV at 235 nm 
   
        
    Standard Preparation:

Prepare a solution containing known concentrations of amorogentin (cone. Range: 10-180 microgram/ml) in methanol.

   
        
    SAMPLE PREPARTION

Extract 3g of powdered plant material with 50% methanol on a water bath for 4 hr. Filter and evaporate the filtrate under reduced pressure and dissolve the residue in 50ml-distilled water. Extract the water layer with choioroform (3*50ml) followed by butanol (3x50ml). Evaporate the combined butanol extract under reduced pressure and dissolve the residue in 2ml methanol and make up the volume to 20 ml with methanol. Prepare further dilutions if necessary.
   
        
    PROCEDURE

Subject known volumes (5 microlitres) of standard and sample preparations to HPLC and record the respective peak areas for amarogentin and amaroswerin in triplicate and accordingly calculate their percentages in the extract.

   
        
    SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

Swertia angustifolia Buch –Ham Ex D Don is the most common adulterant of S. Chirata. The bitter value of the adulterant is much inferior as compared to S. Chirata. The two plants resemble to a great extent w.r.t morphological and anatomical features. Other plants used as substitutes for S. Chirata in various part of the country include S. biamculata Hook f. and Thorns, ex Clarke, S. Chirata Royle, ex D.Don, £ densifolia, S. lawn, S. minor, S. paniculata Wall. Andrographis paniculata is also chemically different from S.Chirata is having andrographolide as the major constituent often gets substituted for or confused with S. Chirata.
   
        
    HOME REMEDY

Paste of chirata mixed with equal quantity of sugar or honey checks vomiting and nausea.
   
        

  •     DOSE :-

Powder — 1-3 g
Decoction - 25-50 ml
   
   
 

 
 
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