Brahmi
1253536280brahmi_out.jpg BRAHMI Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell Family - Euphorbiaceae A. Creeping succulent herb branches profusely and starts rooting at the nodes. The succulent leaves are sessile, opposite, decussate, obovate-oblanceolate in shape, 1.0-2.5 cm x 0.4-1.0 cm in size. It is found in damp or marshy areas near streams or on the border of ponds, throughout India. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION It is found throughout India in wet, damp and marshy areas. This genus consists of 20 species of small herbaceous plants inhabiting the warm parts of the world, of which 3 are represented in India. REGIONAL NAMES English - Thyme leaved gratiola Bengali - Brihmi-sak, Jalanimba Hindi - Brami, Jalnim Niru Malayalam - Nirbrahmi Nirbrahmi Marathi - Nirpirami Kannada - Brahmi Brami, Tamil - Piramiyapundu PART USED : Whole plant, fresh as well as dried MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES • The plant is astringent, bitter, sweet, cooling purgative intellect promoting, laxative, anodyne, carminative, digestive, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative cardiotonic, bronc hodilator, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorific, febrifuge and tonic. • It is useful in epilepsy, insanity, neuralgia, tumors, and makes the voice clear, promotes sleep. • It is digestive and useful in splenomegaly skin diseases, fever, cure of convulsions etc • It is aphrodisiac and aperients used in the treatment of asthma, hoarseness of voice, insanity, and epilepsy• • The powder of leaves mixed with milk and given in mental weakness which improve memory, mental clarity, and longevity• • It calms the mind and promotes relaxation • It increases protein synthesis and activity in brain cells . • It decreases anxiety, restlessness. • Both the leaves and stems of plant comprise the herbal drug. The herb is a popular Medha Rasayana of Indian medicine and finds use as a constituent in many Ayurvedic herbal formulations. It influences all the three doshas (Tridoshas) Vata-pitta-kapha and normalizes the imbalances in them. It is astringent, bitter, cooling, possesses beneficial effects in anxiety neurosis, mental strain and insomnia, improving intellect and memory. CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION : SOIL AND CLIMATE The plant is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. It grows exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under sub-tropical conditions. The plants grow faster at high temperatures (33-40° C) and humidity (65-80%) and should be cultivated in summer as the rainy season begins. LAND PREPARTION The field should be ploughed thoroughly and all the weeds should be taken out. The land should be irrigated a day before planting for establishment of plant cuttings. TRANSPLANTING Plant cuttings about 4-5 cm long, each containing a few leaves, nodes and roots are ideal planting materials. These can be obtained by cutting mother plants into small pieces along with roots. The cutting is transplanted in wet soil at spacing of 40 cm * 40 cm. Flood irrigation is provided immediately after planting. Ideally, the plants should be transplanted in March-June and are allowed to grow and proliferate through hot and humid months of monsoon till September after which harvesting should be done. The plants can also be maintained in a perennial state with two harvests in a year, the first one in June and the other one after monsoon, in October. MANURE/FERTILIZER Five tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure per hectare should be applied to the field at the time of field preparation. IRRIGATION Immediately after transplanting, irrigation is essential for survival of the plants. Subsequently, the fields are irrigated by flooding as per requirement usually every 7-8 days. There is no need for irrigation during monsoon. WEEDING Initially hand weeding is required every 5-20 days. Later as the plant proliferate and forms a dense mat of vegetation, weeding may be required sporadically. HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION The plants should be harvested between October-November, after that there is loss of plant biomass and bacoside yield. The plant can be ideally harvested by cutting in such a way so that the upper portions of the stem 4-5 cms from the base are removed and the rest left for subsequent regeneration. The plant is dried under shade at room temperature. Alternatively, they can be treated at 80° C in oven for 30 minutes immediately after harvest for a two-fold more retention of bacoside-A content of dried herb. After treatment they can be further air dried by spreading on the ground at room temperature or in the oven at 37° C. The material is to be cleaned free of any external matter. The dry material should be stored in a cool dry room packed in bags/boxes having concrete flooring, away from walls. Precautions should be taken to avoid infestation with fungi and insects. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS MAJOR CONSTITUENTS Tetracyclic triterpenoid saponis, Bacosides A and B Bitter principles: Amarogentin and amaroswerin. Other Constituents Various Tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins viz., bacosides Al and A3, hersaponin, betulic acid, D-manitol, stigmasterol, a-sitosterol, monnierin, alkaloids viz., herpestine and brahmine; Flavonoids viz., luteolin-7-glucoside; glucoronyl-7-apigenin, glucoronyl-7-luteolin; new sapogenins viz., jujubogenin, pseudojujubogenin and common phytosterols are reported. ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS The nerve tonic activity of Bacopa monnieri has been attributed to two saponins named Bacosides A and B and again they are responsible for its facilitatory effect on various components of memory and especially on avoidance responses in rats. Preliminary studies indicated that the haemolytic activity of bacoside B is twice that of bacoside A. In other studies, a glycoside named hersaponin is found to have CNS depressant activity and has sedative effect on frogs and dogs. ANALYTICAL PROFILE Quantitative determination of total Bacosides as Bacoside A by UV-spectroscopy Bacoside A Solution Prepare a solution of bacoside A in methanol [lmg/ml]. Prepare further dilutions from this stock solution having 25, 50, 100, 200....800, 1000 mg/ml concentrations. Standard Preparation: Prepare a solution containing known concentrations of amorogentin (cone. Range: 10-180 microgram/ml) in methanol. Acid hydrolysis Take 1ml of each solution prepared above, add 4 N aqueous sulfuric acid (1ml) and reflux on a water-bath for 4 hr. Cool and dilute with 4 ml distilled water and remove the methanol under reduced pressure. Extract the aqueous solution with chloroform (4*5 ml), and wash the combined chloroform extract with 0.1% solution of ammonia, and then with distilled water. Dry the chloroform solution over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and remove the chloroform under reduced pressure. Dissolve the residue in methanol (A.R.) and make up the volume to 10 ml. Calibration Curve Measure the absorbance of the solutions after hydrolysis at 278 nm and draw a calibration curve (n=5) in the range 5-50 microgram/ml corresponding to bacoside A Procedure Hydrolyze 1 ml of test solution and work up as mentioned under calibration curve. Measure the absorbance at 278 nm and calculate the content of bacoside A in the sample from the calibration curve. YIELD The fresh and dry herb yields of Brahmi go upto 300q/hectare and 60/q/ hectare, respectively, when harvested after September while bacoside-A yield can be as much as 85kg/ hectare. After the first harvest, 40q dry herb yield from the June harvest, totaling to 100-q dry herb yield in a year will be obtainable. SUBSTITUTE/ADULTERANTS Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Welts and Centella asiatica (Linn) Urban often get substituted for each other in the market as both are commonly sold under the same vernacular name Brahmi. HOME REMEDY Brahmi is the best remedy for epilepsy. DOSE :- Juice - 10-20 ml Powder - 1-3 g IMPORTANT FORMULATION Saraswatarishta, Brahmi Ghrita, Ratnagiri Rasa, Brahmi Vati, Saraswata churna.
 

 BRAHMI   
       
    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell
 
 
 
 
Family - Euphorbiaceae 

  
 

 
  
    A. Creeping succulent herb branches profusely and starts rooting at the nodes. The succulent leaves are sessile, opposite, decussate, obovate-oblanceolate in shape, 1.0-2.5 cm x 0.4-1.0 cm in size. It is found in damp or marshy areas near streams or on the border of ponds, throughout India.
   
        
    ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION
   
    It is found throughout India in wet, damp and marshy areas. This genus consists of 20 species of small herbaceous plants inhabiting the warm parts of the world, of which 3 are represented in India.
   
        
    REGIONAL NAMES   
    English - Thyme leaved gratiola
Bengali - Brihmi-sak, Jalanimba
Hindi - Brami, Jalnim Niru
Malayalam - Nirbrahmi Nirbrahmi
Marathi - Nirpirami
Kannada - Brahmi Brami,
Tamil - Piramiyapundu 
   
        
    PART USED : Whole plant, fresh as well as dried   
    MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES
   
   • The plant is astringent, bitter, sweet, cooling purgative intellect promoting, laxative, anodyne, carminative, digestive, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative cardiotonic, bronc hodilator, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorific, febrifuge and tonic.   
   • It is useful in epilepsy, insanity, neuralgia, tumors, and makes the voice clear, promotes sleep.   
   • It is digestive and useful in splenomegaly skin diseases, fever, cure of convulsions etc  
   • It is aphrodisiac and aperients used in the treatment of asthma, hoarseness of voice, insanity, and epilepsy•   
   • The powder of leaves mixed with milk and given in mental weakness which improve memory, mental clarity, and longevity•   
   • It calms the mind and promotes relaxation   
   • It increases protein synthesis and activity in brain cells .   
   • It decreases anxiety, restlessness.  
   • Both the leaves and stems of plant comprise the herbal drug. The herb is a popular Medha Rasayana of Indian medicine and finds use as a constituent in many Ayurvedic herbal formulations. It influences all the three doshas (Tridoshas) Vata-pitta-kapha and normalizes the imbalances in them. It is astringent, bitter, cooling, possesses beneficial effects in anxiety neurosis, mental strain and insomnia, improving intellect and memory.   
        
    CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE
   
   
The plant is known to grow under varying soil and climatic conditions. It grows exceptionally well in poorly drained soils and waterlogged areas under sub-tropical conditions. The plants grow faster at high temperatures (33-40° C) and humidity (65-80%) and should be cultivated in summer as the rainy season begins.   
        
    LAND PREPARTION

The field should be ploughed thoroughly and all the weeds should be taken out. The land should be irrigated a day before planting for establishment of plant cuttings.

   
   
TRANSPLANTING   
   
Plant cuttings about 4-5 cm long, each containing a few leaves, nodes and roots are ideal planting materials. These can be obtained by cutting mother plants into small pieces along with roots. The cutting is transplanted in wet soil at spacing of 40 cm * 40 cm. Flood irrigation is provided immediately after planting. Ideally, the plants should be transplanted in March-June and are allowed to grow and proliferate through hot and humid months of monsoon till September after which harvesting should be done. The plants can also be maintained in a perennial state with two harvests in a year, the first one in June and the other one after monsoon, in October.    
    MANURE/FERTILIZER   
    Five tonnes of well-decomposed farmyard manure per hectare should be applied to the field at the time of field preparation.
   
    IRRIGATION   
    Immediately after transplanting, irrigation is essential for survival of the plants. Subsequently, the fields are irrigated by flooding as per requirement usually every 7-8 days. There is no need for irrigation during monsoon.   
        
    WEEDING

Initially hand weeding is required every 5-20 days. Later as the plant proliferate and forms a dense mat of vegetation, weeding may be required sporadically.
   
    HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION   
    The plants should be harvested between October-November, after that there is loss of plant biomass and bacoside yield. The plant can be ideally harvested by cutting in such a way so that the upper portions of the stem 4-5 cms from the base are removed and the rest left for subsequent regeneration. The plant is dried under shade at room temperature. Alternatively, they can be treated at 80° C in oven for 30 minutes immediately after harvest for a two-fold more retention of bacoside-A content of dried herb. After treatment they can be further air dried by spreading on the ground at room temperature or in the oven at 37° C. The material is to be cleaned free of any external matter. The dry material should be stored in a cool dry room packed in bags/boxes having concrete flooring, away from walls. Precautions should be taken to avoid infestation with fungi and insects.

   
        
    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Tetracyclic triterpenoid saponis, Bacosides A and B

Bitter principles: Amarogentin and amaroswerin.
   
        
    Other Constituents

Various Tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins viz., bacosides Al and A3, hersaponin, betulic acid, D-manitol, stigmasterol, a-sitosterol, monnierin, alkaloids viz., herpestine and brahmine; Flavonoids viz., luteolin-7-glucoside; glucoronyl-7-apigenin, glucoronyl-7-luteolin; new sapogenins viz., jujubogenin, pseudojujubogenin and common phytosterols are reported.


   
        
    ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

The nerve tonic activity of Bacopa monnieri has been attributed to two saponins named Bacosides A and B and again they are responsible for its facilitatory effect on various components of memory and especially on avoidance responses in rats. Preliminary studies indicated that the haemolytic activity of bacoside B is twice that of bacoside A. In other studies, a glycoside named hersaponin is found to have CNS depressant activity and has sedative effect on frogs and dogs.
   
        
    ANALYTICAL PROFILE

Quantitative determination of total Bacosides as Bacoside A by UV-spectroscopy
   
        
    Bacoside A Solution

Prepare a solution of bacoside A in methanol [lmg/ml]. Prepare further dilutions from this stock solution having 25, 50, 100, 200....800, 1000 mg/ml concentrations.
   
    Standard Preparation:

Prepare a solution containing known concentrations of amorogentin (cone. Range: 10-180 microgram/ml) in methanol.

   
        
    Acid hydrolysis

Take 1ml of each solution prepared above, add 4 N aqueous sulfuric acid (1ml) and reflux on a water-bath for 4 hr. Cool and dilute with 4 ml distilled water and remove the methanol under reduced pressure. Extract the aqueous solution with chloroform (4*5 ml), and wash the combined chloroform extract with 0.1% solution of ammonia, and then with distilled water. Dry the chloroform solution over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and remove the chloroform under reduced pressure. Dissolve the residue in methanol (A.R.) and make up the volume to 10 ml.

   
        
    Calibration Curve

Measure the absorbance of the solutions after hydrolysis at 278 nm and draw a calibration curve (n=5) in the range 5-50 microgram/ml corresponding to bacoside A

   
        
    Procedure

Hydrolyze 1 ml of test solution and work up as mentioned under calibration curve. Measure the absorbance at 278 nm and calculate the content of bacoside A in the sample from the calibration curve.
   
    YIELD   
    The fresh and dry herb yields of Brahmi go upto 300q/hectare and 60/q/ hectare, respectively, when harvested after September while bacoside-A yield can be as much as 85kg/ hectare. After the first harvest, 40q dry herb yield from the June harvest, totaling to 100-q dry herb yield in a year will be obtainable.   
        
    SUBSTITUTE/ADULTERANTS

Bacopa monnieri (Linn) Welts and Centella asiatica (Linn) Urban often get substituted for each other in the market as both are commonly sold under the same vernacular name Brahmi.
   
        
    HOME REMEDY

Brahmi is the best remedy for epilepsy.
   
        
    DOSE :-

Juice - 10-20 ml Powder - 1-3 g
   
        
    IMPORTANT FORMULATION

Saraswatarishta, Brahmi Ghrita, Ratnagiri Rasa, Brahmi Vati, Saraswata churna.

   
   
 

 
 
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