ShatavariIndian asparagus (Asparagus racemosus Willd.)
1253538215image_Out.jpg Asparagus racemosus Willd. Family - Liliaceae A perennial, prickly climber excessively branched, Roots tuberous 15-40 cm long, greyish-white and cultivated both for medicinal & ornamental purpose. REGIONAL NAMES English - Wild asparagus Hindi - Satavar, satamuli Malayalam - Satavari, Satavali Tamil - Kilavari, satavali DISTRIBUTION Found throughout India in the tropical & subtropical parts up to 1200 m. PART USED : Tuberous root MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES The roots are bitter, emollient, cooling, nervine tonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, ophthalmic, appetiser and useful in diarrhoea and rheumatic complaints. It is useful in dyspepsia, colic pain, inflammation, nephropathy, hcpatopathy, tumours, burning, sensation, hyperdipsia, stangury, throat infections etc. Tubers promote lactation, appetite and provide nourishment to children. TRADITIONAL USES Shatavari is one of the most important of all herbs for female reproductive health, and it especially improves the quality and quantity of reproductive fluids in men and women (Shukra Dhatu). It is also used to improve the quality and quantity of mother's milk when breastfeeding. This herb is known to increase Sattwa, or positivity and healing power. It also enhances the feelings of spiritual love, and increases Ojas (that through which consciousness enters the physiology).Shatavari supports all the metabolic processes (Agnis) to create good quality in all seven categories of bodily tissues (Dhatus).It should be used with other herbs to avoid aggravation of any congestion. CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION : SOIL AND CLIMATE Plant usually grows in a variety of soils including medium black having pH 7-8, It can be easily grown in sub-tropical & sub-temperate agro-climatic regions up to 1400 m. LAND PREPARATION The soil is ploughed to a depth of 20-30 cm followed by 2-3 harrowings after few days. Weeds are removed. The land is leveled properly and 40-45 cms broad ridges are prepared for transplantation, leaving 15-20 cms furrow space as a channel for irrigation. NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING Seeds are sown in April in raised beds at 5 cms apart to facilitate decay of its hard seed coat by the time monsoon commences. It germinates in 8 to 10 days after the first shower of monsoon in June. The seedlings are transplanted on ridges at 60 * 60 cms apart and provided bamboo stakes when the plants attained a height of 45 cms. Vegetative propagation is by division of rhizomatous disc present at the base of the aerial stem. The rhizomatous disc develops several vegetative buds around the aerial shoots. The disc is divided in such a way that each piece possesses at least two buds along with 2-3 tuberous roots. These pieces are planted, covering the buds with 1 cm of soil followed by irrigation. The sprouting commences on 8-10 days after transplantation. WEEDING AND THINNING Two weedings are carried out during the rainy season, thereafter, one in next 2-3 months. MANURE/FERTILIZER Organic manures are preferred. IRRIGATION Irrigation is done after the rainy season, at the rate of two irrigations in winter and one per month in summer. HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION The plants are harvested after 40 months in winter. The roots are dug-out collected and cleared. The roots are peeled off with the help of sharp knife immediately after harvesting. It is observed that if the roots are not peeled off immediately, it will be difficult to remove the skin. In such situations, the roots are kept in boiling water for about 10 minutes, followed by cold-water treatment to facilitate peeling. After removing the skin, it is cut transversely into small pieces and dried in shade. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS MAJOR CONSTITUENTS Steroidal gJycoside Shatavarin I-IV, a polycyclic alkaloid; Asparagamine-A, 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative-racemosol are the major active constituents isolated from this plant. OTHER CONSTITUENTS Sarsapogenin; glycosides of quercetin, rutin and hyperoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-glucorhamnoside; diosgenin and quercehn, 3-glucuronide in leaves; sitosterol, stigmasterol, sarsapogenin, sitosterol-|3-D-glucoside, stigmasterol-13-D-glucoside, two spirostanol and furostanolic saponins and sapogenin in fruits; D-glucose, D-mannose and a new disaccharide, 3-O-J3-D glucopyranosyl D-manno-pyranose in roots are reported. ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS Major constituents of the plant viz. Shatavarin 1, Shatavarin IV and a new alkaloid asparagamine are known to exhibit antioxytocic, anti-ADH antiabortifacient and antioxytoxin activity in different invitro studies on animal models. ANALYTICAL PROFILE High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) analysis of Shatavarin IV. SOLVENT SYSTEM Chloroform: Methanol (7:3) TLC PLATES Precoated Silica Ge; 60 F^ TLC plate (E.Merck) of 0. 2 mm thickness. DERIVATIZATION Spray with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent. SCANNING At 560 nm STANDARD SOLUTION Dissolve 10 mg of Shatavarin IV in 10 ml of methanol in a volumetric flask. From this stock solution prepare standard solutions of 100-1000 microgram/ ml by taking aliquots (0.1 to 1.0 ml) of stock solution and adjusting the volume to 1.0 ml with methanol.. SAMPLE PREPARATION Extract 20 g of powdered drug with 150 ml of n-hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus to defat the material. Further extract the drug with methanol for 8 to 10 h. Remove the solvent under reduced pressure. Dissolve 20 mg of methanolic extractive in 1 ml of methanol. CALIBRATION CURVE Apply 10 microlitre of each of the standard solutions on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate (E.Merck). Develop the plate in twin trough chamber to a distance of 8 cm. Derivatize the plate by spraying with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and heating at 110C for 30 min. Cool the plate for 10 min. at room temperature and scan densitometrically at 560 nm. Record the peak area and prepare the calibration curve by plotting peak area vs. concentration of Shatavarin IV applied. ESTIMATION OF SHATAVARIN IV IN THE DRUG Apply 10 microlitre of the sample solution in triplicate on a precoated silica gel 60 F254 plate (E.Merck) of uniform thickness (0.2 mm.). Develop the plate in the solvent system and record the peak area of Shatavarin IV as described above for calibration curve. Calculate the amount of Shatavarin IV present in the sample from the calibration curve of Shatavarin IV. The percentage of Shatavarin IV ranges from 0.26 to 0.31 in the samples analyzed. YIELD Estimated yield of dry roof are is 5-7 tons/hectare. Precaution should be taken from rodents and rats, which occasionally eat tender shoots. SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS It is reported that in Indian markets apart from Asparagus racemosus, the roots of Asparagus Sarmentosus Linn., Asparagus curittus ham. , Asparagus curittus ham. and Asparagus Sprengeri Regel are also being sold in the name of Shatavari. HOME REMEDY Shatavari pounded and taken with milk increases the flow of breast milk. DOSE :- Juice - 10-20 ml Powder - 3-5 g IMPORTANT FORMULATION Shatavarighritam
 
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
 
Family - Liliaceae

     
           

 
     
           

A perennial, prickly climber excessively branched, Roots tuberous 15-40 cm long, greyish-white and cultivated both for medicinal & ornamental purpose.
     
                   
REGIONAL NAMES      
           
English - Wild asparagus
Hindi - Satavar, satamuli
Malayalam - Satavari, Satavali
Tamil - Kilavari, satavali
     
                   
           

DISTRIBUTION

Found throughout India in the tropical & subtropical parts up to 1200 m.

     
                   
           

PART USED :
Tuberous root

 
     
           

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES

The roots are bitter, emollient, cooling, nervine tonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, ophthalmic, appetiser and useful in diarrhoea and rheumatic complaints. It is useful in dyspepsia, colic pain, inflammation, nephropathy, hcpatopathy, tumours, burning, sensation, hyperdipsia, stangury, throat infections etc. Tubers promote lactation, appetite and provide nourishment to children.
     
                   
           

TRADITIONAL USES


Shatavari is one of the most important of all herbs for female reproductive health, and it especially improves the quality and quantity of reproductive fluids in men and women (Shukra Dhatu). It is also used to improve the quality and quantity of mother's milk when breastfeeding. This herb is known to increase Sattwa, or positivity and healing power. It also enhances the feelings of spiritual love, and increases Ojas (that through which consciousness enters the physiology).Shatavari supports all the metabolic processes (Agnis) to create good quality in all seven categories of bodily tissues (Dhatus).It should be used with other herbs to avoid aggravation of any congestion.
     
                   
           

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE


Plant usually grows in a variety of soils including medium black having pH 7-8, It can be easily grown in sub-tropical & sub-temperate agro-climatic regions up to 1400 m.

 
     
           

LAND PREPARATION

The soil is ploughed to a depth of 20-30 cm followed by 2-3 harrowings after few days. Weeds are removed. The land is leveled properly and 40-45 cms broad ridges are prepared for transplantation, leaving 15-20 cms furrow space as a channel for irrigation.
     
                   
           

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

Seeds are sown in April in raised beds at 5 cms apart to facilitate decay of its hard seed coat by the time monsoon commences. It germinates in 8 to 10 days after the first shower of monsoon in June. The seedlings are transplanted on ridges at 60 * 60 cms apart and provided bamboo stakes when the plants attained a height of 45 cms. Vegetative propagation is by division of rhizomatous disc present at the base of the aerial stem. The rhizomatous disc develops several vegetative buds around the aerial shoots. The disc is divided in such a way that each piece possesses at least two buds along with 2-3 tuberous roots. These pieces are planted, covering the buds with 1 cm of soil followed by irrigation. The sprouting commences on 8-10 days after transplantation.
     
                   
           

WEEDING AND THINNING


Two weedings are carried out during the rainy season, thereafter, one in next 2-3 months.

     
                   
           

MANURE/FERTILIZER

Organic manures are preferred.

     
                   
           

IRRIGATION

Irrigation is done after the rainy season, at the rate of two irrigations in winter and one per month in summer.
     
                   
           

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION

The plants are harvested after 40 months in winter. The roots are dug-out collected and cleared. The roots are peeled off with the help of sharp knife immediately after harvesting. It is observed that if the roots are not peeled off immediately, it will be difficult to remove the skin. In such situations, the roots are kept in boiling water for about 10 minutes, followed by cold-water treatment to facilitate peeling. After removing the skin, it is cut transversely into small pieces and dried in shade.
     
                   
           

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Steroidal gJycoside Shatavarin I-IV, a polycyclic alkaloid; Asparagamine-A, 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene derivative-racemosol are the major active constituents isolated from this plant.
     
                   
           

OTHER CONSTITUENTS

Sarsapogenin; glycosides of quercetin, rutin and hyperoside, cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-glucorhamnoside; diosgenin and quercehn, 3-glucuronide in leaves; sitosterol, stigmasterol, sarsapogenin, sitosterol-|3-D-glucoside, stigmasterol-13-D-glucoside, two spirostanol and furostanolic saponins and sapogenin in fruits; D-glucose, D-mannose and a new disaccharide, 3-O-J3-D glucopyranosyl D-manno-pyranose in roots are reported.
     
                   
           

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

Major constituents of the plant viz. Shatavarin 1, Shatavarin IV and a new alkaloid asparagamine are known to exhibit antioxytocic, anti-ADH antiabortifacient and antioxytoxin activity in different invitro studies on animal models.
     
                   
           

ANALYTICAL PROFILE

High performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) analysis of Shatavarin IV.
     
                   
           

SOLVENT SYSTEM


Chloroform: Methanol (7:3)
     
                   
           

TLC PLATES

Precoated Silica Ge; 60 F^ TLC plate (E.Merck) of 0. 2 mm thickness.
     
                   
           

DERIVATIZATION

Spray with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent.
     
                   
           

SCANNING

At 560 nm
     
                   
           

STANDARD SOLUTION

Dissolve 10 mg of Shatavarin IV in 10 ml of methanol in a volumetric flask. From this stock solution prepare standard solutions of 100-1000 microgram/ ml by taking aliquots (0.1 to 1.0 ml) of stock solution and adjusting the volume to 1.0 ml with methanol..
     
                   
           

SAMPLE PREPARATION

Extract 20 g of powdered drug with 150 ml of n-hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus to defat the material. Further extract the drug with methanol for 8 to 10 h. Remove the solvent under reduced pressure. Dissolve 20 mg of methanolic extractive in 1 ml of methanol.
     
                   
           

CALIBRATION CURVE

Apply 10 microlitre of each of the standard solutions on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plate (E.Merck). Develop the plate in twin trough chamber to a distance of 8 cm. Derivatize the plate by spraying with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and heating at 110°C for 30 min. Cool the plate for 10 min. at room temperature and scan densitometrically at 560 nm. Record the peak area and prepare the calibration curve by plotting peak area vs. concentration of Shatavarin IV applied.
     
                   
           

ESTIMATION OF SHATAVARIN IV IN THE DRUG

Apply 10 microlitre of the sample solution in triplicate on a precoated silica gel 60 F254 plate (E.Merck) of uniform thickness (0.2 mm.). Develop the plate in the solvent system and record the peak area of Shatavarin IV as described above for calibration curve. Calculate the amount of Shatavarin IV present in the sample from the calibration curve of Shatavarin IV. The percentage of Shatavarin IV ranges from 0.26 to 0.31 in the samples analyzed.
     
                   
           

YIELD

Estimated yield of dry roof are is 5-7 tons/hectare. Precaution should be taken from rodents and rats, which occasionally eat tender shoots.

     
                   
           

SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

It is reported that in Indian markets apart from Asparagus racemosus, the roots of Asparagus Sarmentosus Linn., Asparagus curittus ham. , Asparagus curittus ham. and Asparagus Sprengeri Regel are also being sold in the name of Shatavari.
     
                   
           

HOME REMEDY

Shatavari pounded and taken with milk increases the flow of breast milk.
     
                   
           

DOSE :-

Juice - 10-20 ml Powder - 3-5 g

 
     
           

IMPORTANT FORMULATION

Shatavarighritam
 
 
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