Makoy/Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn. )
1253539717image_Makoy-Black out.jpg Solatium nigrum Linn. Family - Solanaceae Makoy An erect herb 30-60 cm high with small white flower and green berries fruits turns red or black on ripening. Seed discoid, smooth and yellowish. Flowering & fruiting - August to October. It grows as a weed throughout dry parts of India. REGIONAL NAMES English - Black nightshade Hindi - Makoy, Gurkkamai Malayalam - Manattakkali, Karintakali Kannada - Kakarundi Tamil - Manattakkali, Milagutakkali Telugu - Kamanci, Kacc DISTRIBUTION Found in the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Sikkim at an elevation of 2,700-4,500 meter hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It can be cultivated between 1800 m to 2800 m. altitude. PART USED : Whole Plant. MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES The plant is bitter, acrid, emollient, mildly ihermogenic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anodyne, vulnerary, digestive, laxative, diuretic, cardiotonic, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, hydragogue, rejuvenating, sedative, alterant and tonic. It is useful in rheumatalgia, swellings, cough, asthma, bronchitis, wounds, ulcers, flatulence, dyspepsia, stangury, hepatomegaly, general debility etc. A decoction of the plant depresses the central nervous system and reflexes of the spinal cord and has influence on cardiac activity and in the regulation of blood pressure. It is used in edema, fever and cough, gonorrhea, heart disease (accompanied by leg and foot swelling), hemorrhoids, inflammatory swellings, enlarged liver, skin diseases, enlarged spleen, painful, swollen testicles. CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION : SOIL AND CLIMATE The plant grows in different kinds of soil including dry, stony, shallow or deep soils. It usually grows in moist habitat in wastelands as weed. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic regions. NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING The seeds are sown during April-May in well-manured nursery beds. It takes about 15-30 days to grow. The seedlings are developed in about 20-30 days after sowing. The seedlings are transplanted in rows and 60 X 60cm apart in the well-prepared field. WEEDING AND HOEING Periodic hoeing is done, both in the nursery and field as per requirement MANURE/FERTILIZER Manuring is recommended during winter or before transplanting. In general, maximum manure 60-70 q/acre is required at lower altitude and 40-46 q/acre at medium altitude to achieve best production for three years. However, at sites rich in organic matter only 18.04-q./acre manure is required for three years. IRRIGATION The nursery beds and plantation should be irrigated periodically as and when required weekly or fortnightly. The plants are irrigated till it flowers. HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION The crop is usually ready for harvesting after 4-6 months depending upon the climate and soil. The plants are collected and dried in shade. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS MAJOR CONSTITUENTS Five Steroidal alkaloids viz, SN-0, SN-1, SN-2, SN-3, and SN-4 were isolated and characterized as solanine, a and a solamargine, solasonine and a-and a-solanigrine, steroidal genin viz., tigogenin, solasodine, one spirostanol glycoside; uttronin A, two furostanol glycosides; uttroside A and B were also isolated. OTHER CONSTITUENTS Six new steroidal alkaloids-SN-a to SN-f which are derivatives of solamargine and solasonine, and a new alkaloid, 23-0-acetyl-12|3-hydroxy solasodine, two new quercetin glycosides and four known quercetin glycosides viz., quercetin 3-glucosyl(l-6) galactoside, 3-gentiobioside, 3-galactoside and 3-glucoside, chlorogenic, caffeic, traces of neochlorogenic, isochlorogenic acids and caffeoyl glucose along with fatty oils containing palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were isolated and characterized from trie different parts of the plant ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS Steroidal glycosides viz.; SN-1, SN-2 & SN-3 showed inhibition of tumour cells of human uterus1, whereas steroidal glycosides viz.; B2-solamargine, solamargine and degalactotigonin exhibited antineoplastic activity. Apart from this, different extracts of the various pan of the plant also show neuropharmacological activity, antiulcerogenic activity and anti-microbial activity. HOME REMEDY Sonth pounded with Makoy juice alleviates urticarial patches. DOSE 5-10ml of the drug in juice form
 
Solatium nigrum Linn.
 
Family - Solanaceae

 
 
   

     
           

 
     
           

An erect herb 30-60 cm high with small white flower and green berries fruits turns red or black on ripening. Seed discoid, smooth and yellowish. Flowering & fruiting - August to October. It grows as a weed throughout dry parts of India.
     
                  
REGIONAL NAMES      
           
English - Black nightshade
Hindi - Makoy, Gurkkamai
Malayalam - Manattakkali, Karintakali
Kannada - Kakarundi
Tamil - Manattakkali, Milagutakkali
Telugu - Kamanci, Kacc

     
                   
           

DISTRIBUTION

Found in the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Sikkim at an elevation of 2,700-4,500 meter hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It can be cultivated between 1800 m to 2800 m. altitude.
     
                   
           

PART USED : Whole Plant.
     
           

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES


The plant is bitter, acrid, emollient, mildly ihermogenic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anodyne, vulnerary, digestive, laxative, diuretic, cardiotonic, depurative, diaphoretic, febrifuge, hydragogue, rejuvenating, sedative, alterant and tonic. It is useful in rheumatalgia, swellings, cough, asthma, bronchitis, wounds, ulcers, flatulence, dyspepsia, stangury, hepatomegaly, general debility etc. A decoction of the plant depresses the central nervous system and reflexes of the spinal cord and has influence on cardiac activity and in the regulation of blood pressure. It is used in edema, fever and cough, gonorrhea, heart disease (accompanied by leg and foot swelling), hemorrhoids, inflammatory swellings, enlarged liver, skin diseases, enlarged spleen, painful, swollen testicles.
     
                   
           

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE


The plant grows in different kinds of soil including dry, stony, shallow or deep soils. It usually grows in moist habitat in wastelands as weed. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical agro-climatic regions.

 
     
           

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

The seeds are sown during April-May in well-manured nursery beds. It takes about 15-30 days to grow. The seedlings are developed in about 20-30 days after sowing. The seedlings are transplanted in rows and 60 X 60cm apart in the well-prepared field.

     
                   
           

WEEDING AND HOEING

Periodic hoeing is done, both in the nursery and field as per requirement
     
                   
           

MANURE/FERTILIZER

Manuring is recommended during winter or before transplanting. In general, maximum manure 60-70 q/acre is required at lower altitude and 40-46 q/acre at medium altitude to achieve best production for three years. However, at sites rich in organic matter only 18.04-q./acre manure is required for three years.
     
                   
           

IRRIGATION

The nursery beds and plantation should be irrigated periodically as and when required weekly or fortnightly. The plants are irrigated till it flowers.
     
                   
           

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION

The crop is usually ready for harvesting after 4-6 months depending upon the climate and soil. The plants are collected and dried in shade.
     
                   
           

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Five Steroidal alkaloids viz, SN-0, SN-1, SN-2, SN-3, and SN-4 were isolated and characterized as solanine, a and a solamargine, solasonine and a-and a-solanigrine, steroidal genin viz., tigogenin, solasodine, one spirostanol glycoside; uttronin A, two furostanol glycosides; uttroside A and B were also isolated.
     
                   
           

OTHER CONSTITUENTS

Six new steroidal alkaloids-SN-a to SN-f which are derivatives of solamargine and solasonine, and a new alkaloid, 23-0-acetyl-12|3-hydroxy solasodine, two new quercetin glycosides and four known quercetin glycosides viz., quercetin 3-glucosyl(l-6) galactoside, 3-gentiobioside, 3-galactoside and 3-glucoside, chlorogenic, caffeic, traces of neochlorogenic, isochlorogenic acids and caffeoyl glucose along with fatty oils containing palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were isolated and characterized from trie different parts of the plant
     
                   
           

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

Steroidal glycosides viz.; SN-1, SN-2 & SN-3 showed inhibition of tumour cells of human uterus1, whereas steroidal glycosides viz.; B2-solamargine, solamargine and degalactotigonin exhibited antineoplastic activity. Apart from this, different extracts of the various pan of the plant also show neuropharmacological activity, antiulcerogenic activity and anti-microbial activity.
     
                   
           

HOME REMEDY


Sonth pounded with Makoy juice alleviates urticarial patches.
     
                   
           

DOSE

5-10ml of the drug in juice form
     
           

    
 
 
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