SarpgandhaRauwolfia (Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz)
1293195382RawoulfiaSerpentina.jpg Rauvolfla serpentina Benth. ex Kurz Family - Apocynaceae It is an erect evergreen, perennial under-shrub, 75 cm. to 1 m. in height. Root is prominent, tuberous, usually branched, 0.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. Up to 40 to 60 cm deep into soil. The roots possess high alkaloid concentration. REGIONAL NAMES English - Rauwolfia root, serpentina root Hindi - Candrabhaga Malayalam - Amalpori Kannada - Sutranabhi Tamil - Sarppaganti, Sivan amalpodi Telugu - Fatal agandhi.
 







Rauvolfla serpentina Benth. ex Kurz

 
Family - Apocynaceae
     
           

 
     
           

It is an erect evergreen, perennial under-shrub, 75 cm. to 1 m. in height. Root is prominent, tuberous, usually branched, 0.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. Up to 40 to 60 cm deep into soil. The roots possess high alkaloid concentration.
     
                   
REGIONAL NAMES   
           
English - Rauwolfia root, serpentina root
Hindi - Candrabhaga
Malayalam - Amalpori
Kannada - Sutranabhi
Tamil - Sarppaganti, Sivan amalpodi
Telugu - Fatal agandhi
     
                   
           

DISTRIBUTION

It is found in the foothills of Himalayan range, up to the elevation of 1300-1400 m. and almost throughout the country. Also seen in lower hills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir etc.
     
                   
           

PART USED : Roots & leaves
     
           

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES


The roots are bitter, acrid, laxative, anthelmintic, thermogenic and diuretic and possess sedative properties. It is highly reputed for hypertension and is useful in stangury, fever, wounds and colic, insomnia, epilepsy, giddiness & dyspepsia. The decoction of the root is used to increase uterine contractions. The juice of the leaf is used as a remedy for the removal of opacities of the cornea.Sarpgandha is an important medicinal plant of India. Its roots are used for the treatment of snakebite, insect nervous disorders, mania and epilepsy. It is also useful in the treatment of hypertension and works as a sedative or tranquilizing agent. The roots are also used in skin disorders, excessive sweating and itching.
     




                   
           

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE


The plant requires slightly acidic to neutral soils for good growth with medium to deep well drained fertile soils. Clay-loam to silt-loam soils, rich in organic content is suitable for its commercial cultivation. It grows well in frost-free tropical to sub-tropical situations under irrigation.

 
     
           

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

The crop can be propagated either by seed, stem cutting or root cuttings. Seed propagation is the best method for raising commercial plantation. By root cutting: Nearly 5 cm long root cutting are planted during spring in nursery beds manured with farmyard manure (FYM), sand and sawdust. The beds are kept moist by watering. The cuttings begin to sprout within three weeks. These can be planted in field during rainy season after 8 to 10 cm rains are received; the seedlings are transplanted at 45 cm row to row and 30 cm plant-to-plant distance. In this manner, an estimated 100 kg of root cuttings are found sufficient for planting one-hectare.

By stem cuttings: Hard woody stem cutting measuring 15 to 22 cm are closely planted during June in the nursery beds where continuous moisture is maintained. After sprouting, these plants are transplanted in the main field at given spacing. By root stumps: About 5 cm of roots, intact with a portion of stem above the collar, are directly transplanted in the field having irrigation facilities.

By seed: Seed germination is highly variable. It is reported to vary from 5 to 30 percent even when heavy seeds are chosen for sowing purpose. Light and heavy seeds can easily be separated by simple water floatation. Germination of heavy seeds during May-June after soaking them in water for 24 hours was 20-40 per cent and 62.77 percent germination was recorded in freshly collected heavy seeds. 6 kg of seeds is sufficient to raise one-hectare plantation. In Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh by the end of April, in West Bengal by first week of May or little later, and in Jammu & Dehradun during third week of May are found to be most suitable time for sowing seed in the nursery. The nursery is prepared by raised beds of 10X10 m. under partial shade made up of one-third of well matured FYM and leaf mould, and two-third amount medium silt-loam soil. About 500 sq m. seedbeds area is sufficient for raising seedlings and enough for planting one-hectare land. The seeds are sown, 2-3 cm apart in rows in shallow furrows by the end of April. The furrows are then covered with a fine mixture of soil and FYM. The bed should be kept moist by light watering. Germination starts after 15-20 days and continues up to 30 to 40 days. Seedlings are ready by mid-July for transplantation. The seedlings are transplanted at 30 cm distance within the rows spaced at 45 cm. If rains are not received during or immediately after transplantation irrigation is necessary for better growth. Sarpagandha takes a long duration (18 months) as it is a slow growing crop particularly in the initial stage; thus different intercrops have been tried.



     
                   
           

WEEDING AND HOEING

Field should be kept relatively weed-free in the early stage of growth. This means giving two to three weddings and two hoeings in the first year where sole Sarpagandha crop is taken or 5-6 weeding where intercrops with Sarpagandha are practiced.

     
                   
           

MANURE/FERTILIZER

Farmyard manure at 20 to 25 q/hectare is required for land preparation, which has given good response.

     
                   
           

IRRIGATION

Sarpagandha, if grown in the areas which receive rainfall of 150 cm or above well distributed throughout the growing season such as in Assam and Kerala, can be raised and rainfed under subtropical conditions. It needs regular irrigation with high temperature combined with low rainfall during rainy season. It is suggested that 15 to 16 irrigations, at 20 days interval in summer and at 30 days interval in winter are sufficient.
     
                   
           

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION

Root yields at different age and climate has shown that 18 months old crop produce maximum root yield. Transplanting is done in July; the harvesting period coincides with the shedding of leaves during early autumn in the next year. At this stage, the roots contain maximum concentration of total alkaloids. During harvest the root may be found to go up to 40 cm deep in the soil. During root harvesting the thin roots are also collected. After digging, the roots are cleaned, washed and cut into 12 to 15 cm pieces for drying and storage. The dry roots possess upto 8-10 per cent of moisture. The dried roots are stored in polythene lined with gunny bags in cool dry place to protect it from mould.
     
                   
           

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Reserpine, Serpentine
     
                   
           

OTHER CONSTITUENTS

Serpentine a terpene consoituents from root was reported. Reserpine and deserpidine from R. serpentina. Isolation of Reserpine, reserpinine, yohimbine, ajmaline, serpentine and serpenitine and ajmalicin from roots. Detection of Reserpine, reserpinine, yohimbine, ajmaline, serpentinean dserpentinine bu PC. Rauigalline and ajmaline was detected in root extract. Raunatine from roots of Kserpentina. A new yohambanoid, rescinnaminol from roots and its structure. Rescinnamidine from roots of the plant. Two new indole alkaloids- sandwicoline and sandwincolidine were isolated from the Nepalian roots, a new alkaloid ajmalicidine from the roots from Thai orojin plants. Reserpine and ajmalicine alkaloids are isolated from roots. Ajmalicidine an alkaloid isolated from roots. Indobine another alkaloid from roots of the plant.
     
                   
           

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

Reserpinine depressive and hypotensive effects atudied, decrease the body temperature. Different activities of Reserpine were studied. Ajmaline increased diuresis. Yohimbine shows antidiuretic activity. Serpentine shows anticancer activity against mammary cancer in mice.
     
                   
           

YIELD

On an average, root yield vary from 15 to 25 q/hectare of dry weight under irrigation depending upon soil fertility, crop stand and management.
     
                   
           

SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

Fruits of Piper Peepuloides Roxb are often mixed with those of Piper longum. Fruits of Piper papulodes are slightly smaller and less pungent than fruit of Piper longum. Often fruits of Piper longum and Piper retrofractum are passed under the common name long pepper. However fruits of P, retrofractum can be easily distinguished from those of Piper longum based on their size and light grey color.
     
                   
           

HOME REMEDY

Sarpagandha should be taken with warm water in mental problems
     
                   
           

DOSE :-

Powder 3-5 g



 
 
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