Pippal/Long pepper (Piper longum Linn.)
1293194060Untitled-2318651076.jpg Piper longum Linn. Family - Piperaceae Pippali It is a glabrous under-shrub with erect or sub-scandent nodose stem and slender branches. Leaves are simple, alternate, stipulate and petiolate or nearly sessile. Flowering is almost through out the year; inflorescence spike; fruit greyish green or dark grey berries. REGIONAL NAMES English - Long pepper Bengali - Pipli, Pipal Gujarati - Lindipiper, piper, Pipli Hindi - Pipar, Pipli Malayalam - Pippali, Tippali, Magadhi Marathi - Pimpli Kannada - Hippali, Kuna, Tippali Tamil - Kattuttippilikkodi, Magadai Oriya - Baihehi, Mogadha,Pippoli Telugu - Pippali, Katte.
 





Piper longum Linn.

 
Family - Piperaceae

It is a glabrous under-shrub with erect or sub-scandent nodose stem and slender branches. Leaves are simple, alternate, stipulate and petiolate or nearly sessile. Flowering is almost through out the year; inflorescence spike; fruit greyish green or dark grey berries.
        
REGIONAL NAMES      
           
English - Long pepper
Bengali - Pipli, Pipal
Gujarati - Lindipiper, piper, Pipli
Hindi - Pipar, Pipli
Malayalam - Pippali, Tippali, Magadhi
Marathi - Pimpli
Kannada - Hippali, Kuna, Tippali
Tamil - Kattuttippilikkodi, Magadai
Oriya - Baihehi, Mogadha,Pippoli
Telugu - Pippali, Katti


DISTRIBUTION

It is a native of Indo-Malayan region. It grows wild in the tropical rain forests of India.

PART USED :
Roots and dried spikes

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES


The roots are bitter, thermogenic, tonic, diuretic, purgative, expectorant, anthelmintic, stomachic, digestive and emmenagogue. They are useful in gout, lumbago, dyspepsia, apoplexy, stomachalgia and splenopathy. The dried spikes are acrid, mildly thermogenic, stomachic, aphrodisiac, carminative, expectorant, febrifuge, tonic, laxative, digestive, emollient and antiseptic. They are useful in anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulent, colic, asthma, bronchitis, hiccough, gastropathy, epilepsy fevers, gonorrhoea, haemorrhoids, gout & lumbago.

It is used in Abdominal Tumors, Asthma, Bronchitis, Colds, Coughs, Digestion, Epilepsy, Flatulence, Gout, Laryngitis, Paralysis, Rheumatic pain, Sciatica, Worms. Again used for paralysis, epilepsy, and stiff joints. Both seeds and root are used for cough, rheumatism, leprosy, and consumption.






CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE


Pippali can be cultivated successfully in organic matter rich fertile, well-drained forest soils. Laterite soils with high organic matter content and moisture holding capacity are also suitable for cultivation. Optimum elevation for its cultivation is between 100 to 1000 m. Higher elevations are not conducive to high yields. It needs partial shade for its ideal growth. Partial shade of 20-25 per cent intensity is found to be the optimum.

LAND PREPARATION

The area should be ploughed two to three times and leveled properly, Raised beds of size 3m X 2.5 m are prepared and pits are dug at a distance of 60 cm X 60 cm and dried cow dung or farmyard manure at the rates of 100 g per pit is applied and mixed with soil. Two rooted cuttings or suckers with roots are planted in each pit. To avoid any water stagnation in beds, channels are laid out to drain excess rainwater.

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING


It is propagated by suckers or rooted vine cuttings. Vine cuttings and suckers are transplanted soon after the setting in of monsoon rains. The best time for raising nursery is during March and April. Normal irrigation may be given on alternate days. Excess moisture in the nursery can cause Phytophthora wilt. By the end of May, the cuttings will be ready for planting.

WEEDING AND HOEING

In first year regular weeding should be done as and when the weed growth is noticed in beds.

MANURE/FERTILIZER

Pippali needs heavy manuring. In soils with low fertility, the growth of the plant is very poor. Twenty tonnes of cow-dung or farmyard manure is required for one hectare of land. Since the crop will give economic yield for three years, the manuring has to be done each year. During the first year organic manure can be applied in pits at the time of field planting. In subsequent years, manuring is done by spreading it in beds and covering with soil. Application of organic manure increases the water holding capacity of the beds.

IRRIGATION

Irrigation once in a week is necessary as an intercrop and if the main crop is irrigated no additional irrigation is necessary for Pippali (Piper longum). When the crop is not irrigated, it is necessary to give mulch with dry leaves or straw during summer. If the crop is imgated during summer, it continues to produce spikes and off-season produce will be available.

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION

The vines start bearing spikes six months after planting. The spikes thus will be ready for harvest after two months since formation of spikes. Spikes are gathered when they are full grown but unripe. If left without picking, they ripe and their pungency is lost to a great extent. Harvested spikes are repeatedly exposed in the sun for 4 to 5 days until they are perfectly dry. The green spike to dry spike ratio is around 10:1.5. The dried spikes have to be stored in moisture proof containers. Thicker pans of lower stems/roots are cut and dried for producing Pippalimool. There are three grades of Pippalimool. The grade I with thick roots and underground stem marketed at higher price than grade 11 and or 111, which comprise their roots, stem or broken fragments.





CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Piperine, piperkmgumine, piperlonguminine, methyl-3, 4, 5-trimethoxy cinnamate

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

P. longum possess bioavailability enhancing properties. Piperine was shown to enhance the bioavailability of antitubercular drugs rifampicin, pyrazinamide, isoniazid and ethambutol and also the antileprotic drugs dapsone.The essential oil of the fruit showed antibacterial, antifungal and antihelminthic activities.

ANALYTICAL PROFILE

Percentage of Piperine varies from 0.292 to 0.38.

YIELD

The yield of dry spike during first year is around 400/kg/hectare.It increases up to 1000 kg/hectare in the third year. After third year, the vines become less productive and should be replanted.

SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

Fruits of Piper Peepuloides Roxb are often mixed with those of Piper longum. Fruits of Piper papulodes are slightly smaller and less pungent than fruit of Piper longum. Often fruits of Piper longum and Piper etrofractum are passed under the common name long pepper. However fruits of P, retrofractum can be easily distinguished from those of Piper longum based on their size and light grey color.

HOME REMEDY

Pippali mixed with jaggery is prescribed in cough, indigestion, anorexia, anaemia, worms and chronic fever.

DOSE

Powder 1-2 g

IMPORTANT FORMULATION

Panchkola churaa, Dasamoola Taila, Dasamula Pancha Koladi Kvatha Churna, Dasamula Satpalaka Ghrita.


 
 
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