CHANDAN
1253624071Chandan_out.jpg Santalutn album Linn. Family - Santalaceae
 

 CHANDAN    
        
Santalutn album Linn. 
 
Family - Santalaceae 
  
 

 
   
Small evergreen tree about 12 to 13 meter and girth of Ito 2.4 meter, with slender druping as well as erect branches. The tree starts flowering at an early age of 2 to 3 years. Fruit is drupe, purplish when fully mature and single seeded.
   
        
REGIONAL NAMES   
English - Sandal tree, White sandal tree
Hindi - Safed Chandan, Santal
Malayalam - Candanam
Kannada - Bavanna, Srigandadamara, Agarugandha
Tamil - Candanam
Telugu - Candanamu, Gandhapucekka
   
PART USED : Heartwood
   
DISTRIBUTION
   
It is found in India, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand and Polynesia 
   
        
MEDICINAL PROPOERTIES AND USES   
The heart wood is bitter, sweet, acrid, aromatic deodorant, disinfectant, refrigerant, depurative, intellect promoting, cardio tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, foul odour due to hypcrhirdosis, skin diseases, leprosy, psychopathy, cardiac debility, haemoptysis, hyperacidity, jaundice, strangury, cough, bronchitis, inflammations, cystitis, dysentery, gastric irritability, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea intermittent fever and general debility.

White Sandalwood is used for acute dermatitis, bronchitis, cystitis, eye diseases, gonorrhea, herpes, zoster, infection, palpitations, sunstroke, urethritis, vaginitis, psychopathic, and many more.
   
        
CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE
   
It grows well in red sandy loam soil. Crop requires humid & hot climate.
   
        
NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

Sunken and raised beds are used to raise seedling. Both of them perform equally well under different climatic conditions. Seedbeds are prepared with sand and red earth in the ratio 3:1. Around 2.5 kg seed is spread uniformly over the bed, covered with straw, which should be removed when the leaves start appearing on the seedlings. Sandal suffers from a very virulent disease caused by combined fungal and nematode infection. When seedlings have reached 4 to 6-leaf stage they are transplanted to poly bags along with a seed of "tur dal" (Cajanus cajan), the primary host for better growth of sandal. Seedlings are carefully removed from beds with all roots intact; roots should not be allowed to dry. Shade can be provided for a week immediately after transplantation. Watering is to be done once a day, but excess moisture is to be avoided. Host plants are to be pruned frequently, so that they do not over grow sandal and hamper its growth. Poly bags should contain soil mixture of ratio 2:1:1 (Sand: Red earth: Farmyard manure). It has been found that poly bags of 30 * 14cm size are the best. Plantable seedlings of about 30cm height can be raised in 6-8 months' time. A well-branched seedling with a brown stem is ideal for planting in the field.

   
   
WEEDING AND THINNING   
   
Weeding should be done at regular intervals    
        
IRRIGATION

It is a rainfed crop. Young plants require watering in summer months at 15-20 days interval till they are fully established.

   
MANURE/FERTILIZER   
20t Farm-yard-manure (FYM) hectare is required for good growth. 
   
HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION   
Sandal wood trees are harvested at the age of 30-60 years. The soft wood is first removed; the hard wood is chipped and then converted into powder in a mill. The powder is soaked in water for 48 hours and then distilled. Distillation takes place in 48 hours. The oil is rectified by re-distillation and filtration.


   
        
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Alpha-and beta-Santalol
   
        
OTHER CONSTITUENTS

Beta-santalic, tetrasantalic, nortricycloekasantalic, bicycloekasantalic and dihydro-beta-santalic acids detected in sandalwood oil. Urs-12-en-3beta-yl palmitate and p-sitisterol isolated from bark, epi-p-santalol isolated. Isolation of trans p-santanol and epi-cis-beta-santanol from Indian sandalwood oil, Exo-norbicycloeaksantalal, beta-santalic, tetrasantalic, nortricycloeaksantalic, bicycloeaksantalic, and dihydro-p-santalic acids. Bpi-p-Santalol, p-Santalol, (-) trans-p-Santalol, a-Santalol, beta-Santalol, epi-beta-santalene, cis-lanceol, cis-nusiferol, p and epi-p-norekasantalic acid, p-and epi-beta-ekasantalic acid and a-santalic acid isolated with two new compounds. Isolation of exo-norbicycloekasantalal from sandalwood oil. Bisabolenols A/ B/ C/ D / E, tricycloekasantalol, trans-a-bergamotene, alpha-curcumone and nusifero l Sesquiterpene and other compounds in sandalwood oil were reported.


   
        
ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

Insect growth inhibition activity of the bark extract studied, Sandalwood oil shows an indirect antioxidant activity and increases the GST activity in mice.
   
        
ANALYTICAL PROFILE

GLC method of the examination of oil content was given using Pye series 104 Chromatogrph 2m x 4mm. glass column containing (a) 5% Carbowax 20M and (b) 5% OV1 on 80-100 mesh Diatomite C and Diatomite CLQ (100-120) mesh respectively.
   
        
YIELD

Sandal is considered to be a slow growing tree. It grows at the rate of 5 cm. of girth or more per year under favorable soil and moisture conditions. The heartwood formation starts around ten years of age. The following table gives an idea of growth and development:
  
         
  
Age (year)  Grith at breast height cm Yield of heartwood in kg.
     
10  10 1
20 22 4
30 33 10
40 44 20
50 55 30
  
   

   
        
SUBSTITUTE/ADULTERANTS

Pieces of sapwood are the main adulterant. These are lighter in colour and devoid of any odour but are more often artificially impregnated by sandalwood oil. Exhausted wood shaving and sawdust after distillation of oil are also mixed with the commercial material.

   
        
DOSE :-

3-6 g of heartwood powder.
   
        
IMPORTANT FORMULATION

Ayaskriti, Ashvagandhadyarishta, Sarivadyasava, Arimedadi Taila, Marma Gutika, Candanasava, Candanadi churna, Candanadi taila, Bala dhatryadi taila

   
   
 

 
 
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