GUGGAL
1293262233guggal.jpg Commiphora wightii (Arn.) B hand an Syn. Commiphora mukul Family - Burseraceae
 





GUGGAL
 
  
        
Commiphora wightii (Arn.) B hand an 
 
Syn. Commiphora mukul 
 
Family - Burseraceae 
  
  
   
        
It is a shrub or small tree reaching upto 3 to 4 m. high. Leaves sessile, alternate, 1-3 foliate. Plants dimorphic, Flowers small in fascicles. Fruits are ovoid, drupe
   
        
REGIONAL NAMES   


English - Indian Bedellium
Bengali - Guggul
Gujarati - Indian Gugguru
Hindi - Guggulu, Guggal
Kannada - Guggal
Malayalam - Gulgulu, Guggalu
Marathi - Guggala
Kannada - Amalaka, Nelhi
Tamil - Maishakshi, Gukkal
Telugu - Guggal
   
        
DISTRIBUTION :

 Found in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Deccan and Gujarat   
    
   
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES : 

  
The gum is bitter, acrid, astringent, thermogenic, aromatic, expectorant, digestive, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, anodyne, antiseptic, nervine tonic, aphrodisiac, alterative, stimulant, liver tonic, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, haematinic, diuretic, rejuvenating, general tonic, and is useful in gout, scrofula, sciatica, facial paralysis diplegia, cough, asthma, bronchitis, pectoral and hepatic, disorders, otorrhoea, epilepsy, fever, stangury, haemorrhoids, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, wounds and ulcers, cardiac disorders, coronary thrombosis, anaemia, stomatopathy, pharyngopathy, spermatorrhoea, diabetes, skin diseases etc.

Studies show that a 14-27% of LDL cholesterol and 22-30% of triglycerides levels were reduced when Guggal was given to men and women with high cholesterol for 12 weeks with no change in diet or exercise. Several clinical studies were published in the Indian Journal of Medicine (volume 84) in 1986, Indian Pharmacoepia and in the Journal of the Association of Physicians in India (vol. 34 & 37) all stating the efficacy of Guggal in lowering LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Dr. David Moore and his team at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found that the guggulsterone, the active ingredient in the Guggal extract, blocks the activity of a receptor in the liver's cells called Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). Later, Dr. David Mangelsdorf at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas confirmed that the Guggal blocked the receptor and affected how cholesterol is metabolized. 



   
        
CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE
   
It can be cultivated in sandy to silt-loam or rocky soils, poor in inorganic matter but rich in several other minerals. The growth is vigorous in the soils, which have moisture-retaining capacity.
   
        
NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

The plants are best raised from stem cuttings of semi-wood (old) branch. Woody stem of one meter in length and 10mm. thickness is selected and the cut end is planted in a well-manure nursery bed during June-July. The bed should be given light irrigation periodically. The cuttings initiate sprouting in 10-15 days and grow into green sprout in next 10-12 months. These rooted plants are suitable for planting in the field during next rainy season. The cuttings give 80-94% sprouting. Seed germination is very poor (5%) but seedlings produce healthier plants, which withstand high velocity wind.
   
   
WEEDING AND HOEING   
   
The plantation does not require much weeding and hoeing. But soil around the' bushes should be pulverized twice in a year to increase the growth.    
        
MANURE/FERTILIZER :

Application of 5 kg FYM per plant per year is sufficient.  
 
IRRIGATION

It requires moderate irrigation. Even limited irrigation during summer, enhances the rate of growth.

   
HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION   

 
Plants attain normal height and girth after 8-10 years of growth when they are ready for tapping of the gum by shallow incision on the bark between December and March.


   
        
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

Guggulsterol
   
        
OTHER CONSTITUENTS

Myricyl alcohol and 3-sitostero1 were isolated. Monocyclic diterpene-a-camphorene and cembrene isolated from resin, allylcembrol isolated and named as-2-hydroxy-4, 8, 12-trimethyl-l-isopropyl-3, 7, 1-cyclodecatriene. Cholesterol 4, 17(20)-trans-pregnadin-3, 16-dione, 4, 17(20)-ics-pregandin-3, 16-dione and 3 new sterols Guggulsterols, 11, 1, ll-isolated from gum resin. Cembrene A isolated from resin. Mukulol has also been isolated from G. glabra. Two aliphatic tetrols octadecan-l, 2, 3, 4-tetrol and eicosan-l, 2, 3, 4-tetrol from gum resins. Guggulsterol-6 and Z-Guggulsterol isolated from gum resin along with 20ct-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20p-hydroxy-4-pregnen3-one, 16a-hydroxy-4, 17(20Z)-pregnadin-3-one and 16a-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one. An unidentified compound from gum resin exhibited lipid-lowering activity


   
        
ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

Gum resin shows different pharmacological properties and clinical applications: Astringent, expectorant, aphrodisiac, demulcent, carminative, alterative, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, to enrich blood, in snakebite and Scorpio sting. Antifertiliry effect. Plant has use in Arthritis.


   
        
YIELD

Approximately 500-800 g gums are obtained per plant.
   
        
SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

Guggal is often adulterated with the oliogum resin of Boswellia serrata or sometimes with resin of pinus sp. However Boswellia gum can be identified with its whitish colour and powdery appearance externally. Pinus resin is stickier and is generally in the form of paste at normal temperature.
   
        
HOME REMEDY

Guggulu with Cow's urine is good for oedema
   
        
DOSE :-

2 g.
   
        
IMPORTANT FORMULATION

Yogaraja guggulu, vatari guggulu, simhanada guggulu, kaissora guggulu, Mahayogaraja guggulu, Chandraprabha vati.



    


 
 
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