Isabgol/Physilum (Plantago ovata Forsk.)
1285580097ISHAB.jpg Plantago ovata Eorsk. Family - Plantaginaceae
 

 ISABGOL    

        

BOTANICAL NAME :-
Plantago ovata Eorsk. 
 
FAMILY- Plantaginaceae    
        
It is a 10-15 cm. tall short-stemmed annual herb. Leaves are born alternately on the stern. Flowers in terminal spikes; Fruit a capsule. Seeds are translucent and concavo-convex.
   
        
REGIONAL NAMES 


LANGUAGE

NAME

Hindi

Isabgol, Isabgul

English

Ispaghula, Blond psyllium, Spogel seeds

Malayalam

Snigddhajirakam, Ispaghal

Kannada 

Issabagolu

Telugu

Isapgaluvittulu

Tamil

Iskol, Isphagol


         
DISTRIBUTION :

Indigenous to the Mediterranean region and West Asia, It has been introduced in India & cultivated especially in Gujarat and some parts of Rajasthan.   
   
MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES :
 
The seeds are sweet astringent, refrigerant, emollient, mucilaginous, diuretic, laxative, anti-inflammatory, anti-dysenteric, expectorant, aphrodisiac, rodorant and tonic. They are useful in burning sensation, habitual constipation, stangury, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, colonalgia, dry cough, erysipelas, gout, gonorrhoea, bilious fever, nephropathy, duodenal ulcers, haemorrhoids, emaciation and general debility.

 

        
BOWEL REGULATOR   

Isabgol absorbs water and expands to provide an increase in bulk and moisture content of stool. This encourages normal peristalsis and bowel mobility.
   
CHOLESTEROL   

Isabgol is a soluble fiber, which is different from the insoluble fibers that are found in wheat bran and cellulose. These fibers can provide a laxative effect, but may have no effect on cholesterol. Isabgol works by forming a thin layer on the intestines and then preventing the absorption of the cholesterol into the arteries, and excreting it in stool and hence producing moderate but significant improvement in blood levels and of cholesterol.
   
CLEANS THE COLON  
 
Isabgol cleans the Gastro Intestinal tract of toxins by forming a bulk that promotes evacuation of the bowels. This also removes indigestion, intestinal obstruction and flatulence thus removing lethargy and providing a feeling of well being.
   
        
PILES, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, HERNIA AND PREGNANCY  
 
Isabgol is also used in piles, fissures and fistulas to bring down the burning sensation after defecation. It also helps to prevent strain during defecation in those who are suffering from cardiovascular diseases, hernia and pregnancy.
   
        

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION :

SOIL AND CLIMATE
  
It is an irrigated crop, which grows well on light soils; soil with poor drainage is not conducive for good growth of this crop. A silty-loam soil having pH from 4.7 to 7.7 with high nitrogen and low moisture content is ideal for growth of plants and high yield of seeds. Isabgol thrives well in warm-temperate regions. It requires cool and dry weather and is sown during winter. Sowing during first week of November gives best yields. Early sowing makes the crop vulnerable to downy mildew disease, whereas late sowing enhances early growth in winter along with the possibility of scattering of seeds due to summer rains in April-May. At maturity, if the weather is humid, its seeds scatter resulting in the reduction of yield. Heavy dew or even a tight shower will proportionately decrease the yield, at times leading to even total loss of the crop. The temperature requirement for maximum seed germination is reported to be 20 to 30°C.

 

 

   
        
LAND PREPARATION

 

 

Field must be free of weeds and clods. The number of ploughings, harrowing and hoeing depends upon the soil conditions, previous crop and degree of weed infestation. About 10-15 tonnes of FYM per hectare is mixed with the soil at the time of last ploughing. The field should be divided into suitable plots of convenient size, depending upon the texture of the soil, the slope of the field and quantum of irrigation. For light soil with even contour, plot size of 8.0 m x 3.0 m will be convenient.
   
        
NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

To obtain high percentage of germination, seeds should be taken from the crop harvested at the end of the preceding crop season. Old seeds tend to lose viability under ordinary storage conditions. Seeds are sown at the rate of 4-8 kg per hectare. The seeds are small and light. Hence before sowing, the seeds are mixed with sufficient quantity of fine sand or sieved with farmyard manure. The seeds are broadcasted because sowing in lines at different spacing does not increase the seed yield. After broadcasting, seeds are swept lightly with a broom to cover them with some soil. Broom however, should be swept in one direction to avoid deep burial of the seed for uniform germination. Sowing should immediately be followed by irrigation. Germination begins in four days after sowing. If delayed, it should be stimulate by watering.

WEEDING AND HOEING   
   
Periodical weeding and hoeing is required.    
        
MANURE/FERTILIZER FOR ISABGOL:

Isabgol does not require the application of heavy doses of fertilizers.   

IRRIGATION

Immediately after sowing, light irrigation is essential. First irrigation should be given with light flow or shower of water otherwise, with fast current of water most of the seeds will be swept to one side of the plot and the germination and distribution will not be uniform. The seeds germinate in 6-7 days. If the germination is poor, second irrigation should be given. Later on irrigations are given as and when required. Last irrigation should be given at the time when maximum number of spikes shoots up. The crop requires 6-7 irrigations for its good productivity in medium sandy soils.

   
HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION  
 
It starts flowering two months after sowing and the crop become ready for harvest in February-March (110-130 days after sowing). When mature, the crop turns yellowish and the spikes turn brownish. The seeds are shed when the spikes are pressed even slightly. At the time of harvest, the atmosphere must be dry and there should be no moisture on the plant; harvesting will lead to considerable scattering of seeds. Hence, the crop should be harvested after 10 am.

 

 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS

 

 

MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

 

 

Fatty acids
        
OTHER CONSTITUENTS

New fatty acids isolated from seed oil and characterized as 9-oxo-octadec-cis-12-enoic acid and 9-hydroxyoctadec-cis-12-enoic acid also isolated. In the seed coat of P.ovata linoleic acid, oleic acid, and palmitic acid are found.

 

 

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

In the effect of aqueous extract of P ovata on humoral immune responses in experimental animals, Plant is used for the treatment of wounds, bronchitis, hemorrhigia and haematuria and diarrhoea.

 

 

YIELD

 

 

Gujarat Isabgol-1, variety yields 800-900 kg of seeds per hectare. The new variety 'Gujarat Isabgol-2' has a potential to yield 1,000 kg of seeds per hectare.
   
SUBSTITUTES / ADULTERANTS

Seeds of other Plantago species are the common adulterants, which could be differentiated from P. ovata based on swelling factor. The quality of the drug is based on the mucilage content, which is expressed as swelling factor.
   
   
 

 
 
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