KESAR
1285395438kesar-2.jpg Kesar (Saffron) Crocus sativus Linn. Family - Iridaceae
 
 



KESAR

 

Botanical Name :- Crocus sativus Linn.

 

Family - Iridaceae

 

Introduction of Kesar

 

A perennial, slow growing, bulbous plant; corm globular producing approximately 6 to 9 sessile leaves surrounded in lower part by 4 or 5 board membranous scales. Flowers are terminal on scape. Perianth is pale reddish purple forming cylindrical tube of about 10 cm long terminating in 6 oblong oval segments.

 

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

 

Saffron is a native of Southern Europe. It is cultivated in Spain, France, Italy, Austria, Greece, Iran, Turkey, Persia, England, India and China. The La-Macha belt of Spain is the largest producer of Saffron in the world, contributing to about 80-90% of the world’s saffron production. In India, it is mostly cultivated in the Pampore and Kistwar areas of Jammu and Kashmir. Attempts have also been made to cultivate it in the Kinnaur area of Himachal Pradesh, the Kumaoun and Garhwal regions of Utter Pradesh and Arunchal Pradesh and in the Northeastern region. Approximately 27% of the saffron produced in India is exported to European and Middle East countries. India faces stiff competition from Iran,Spain,Greece and Morocco in the export trade.

 

REGIONAL NAMES

 

LANGUAGE

NAME

Hindi

Kesar, Larkimasa, Zafaran

English

Saffron

Bengali

Jatran

Gujarati

Keshar

Malayalam

Kungumapoovu

Marathi

Keshar

Telugu

Kunkumapave , Kungumapu

Tamil

Kungumapu

 

 

PART USED:

 

Dried style with stigma.



 

MEDICINAL PROPERTIES AND USES :

 

The dried stigmas are bitter acrid, fragrant, stimulant, tonic, stomachic, aphrodisiac, anodyne, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, diuretic, laxative, and, galactogogue and are useful in bronchitis, pharyngopathy, cephalalgia, vomiting, fever, melancholia, hepatomegaly, epilepsy, inflammation, nephropathy, splenopathy & skin diseases. As a facial cream it is very specific for decolouration of the skin. Saffron has been used, in small doses only, for coughs, whooping cough, stomach gas, gastrointestinal colic and insomnia. It serves as a stimulant to appetite; and a salve for treatment of gout. Saffron is used in sedatives, as an antispasmodic and for flatulence, fevers, melancholia, enlargement of the liver, and asthma. Saffron is also useful for treating anemia, chlorosis and seminal debility. And also used for rheumatism and neuralgia, for looseness of the bowels, to relieve flatulent colic, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, for painful affections of the uterus, for headaches, for bruises and superficial sores, hemorrhoids and snake bite.

 

CULTIVATION AND PROPAGATION : SOIL AND CLIMATE

 

Saffron grows well in cold and sunny climate between the altitudes 1500 to 2200 meters. The areas receiving 100-150cm. of well distribution annual rainfall with snow in winter are suitable for its cultivation the soil, on which this crop is extensively grown in Kashmir, is yellowish in colour. Alkaline soil is supposed to be desirable for giving better yield.

 

LAND PREPARATION

 

The method and time of preparation of land vary in different areas. The hilly areas are first terraced after removing the weeds, shrubs, and trees. Thereafter the soil is prepared during May & June by digging or ploughing for at least 7-8 times. Raised square or rectangular beds are made and well rotten farmyard manure at the rate of 40-50 quintals per acre is mixed thoroughly with the soil. A space of 45cm. between two beds and two parallel rows of beds is kept for drainage and after care like weeding, hoeing, picking of flowers, etc.

 

NURSERY RAISING AND PLANTING

 

Saffron is propagated vegetatively by means of corms. The corms are protected with membranous covering. After removing the outer covering one can see a number of buds on the periphery of the corm varying from 2-5 smaller ones and 10-15 bigger ones. In order to reduce the cost of cultivation trials were made to propagate saffron by corm cutting. The corms of bigger size were longitudinally divided into two equal parts and transplanted. It was observed that all the pieces sprouted well. The growth and development were normal and the plants flowered after third year. The corms are planted in July at a distance of 8-10cm from each other in rows, 15cms apart, at a depth of 8-10cm. and covered properly with soil. 20 quintals (approx.) of corms are required for one acre of land.

 

WEEDING AND THINNING

 

Weeding is done as and when necessary.

 

MANURE/FERTILIZER :

 

Saffron do not require too much manure and fertilizers FYM at the rate of 56 to 95 quintals per acre is essential for a good crop. IRRIGATION In Kashmir it is a snow rainfed crop. Proper irrigation of saffron leads to higher yield. After transplanting the beds are slightly watered to a depth of about 10cm. if there is no rain for about a week. Slight irrigation is found to be essential during the period of flowering at an interval of 5-6 days to obtain good harvest, if the soil moisture becomes critically low due to deficient rains. Irrigation has to be given during November/December to a depth of 10-12 cm. to accelerate the growth of plants.

 

HARVESTING/POST HARVESTING OPERATION

 

Maximum flowering has been observed during second and third week of October. Flowers are picked each morning before mid - day. They are cleared and styl and stigma are separated from the perianth. The stigma is separated from the perianth on the same day of collection because the flowers wilt and separation becomes difficult and more time consuming. The removal of stigma is done manually.


 

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS MAJOR CONSTITUENTS

 

Main Pigments of saffron are mono - and diglycosyl esters of the polyene dicarboxylic acid crocetin.

 

OTHER CONSTITUENTS

 

Campesterol, stigmasterol, p-sitisterol, ursolic acid, Oleanoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid identified in the plant part. Beta-carotene, Y-carotene, lycopene and zeaxanthin have been isolated.

 

ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS

 

Crocus sativus stigmas extract prevented the decrease in the body weight, hemoglobin levels and leucocyte counts when induced by some agents.

 

SUBSTITUTES/ADULTERANTS

 

 It was found to be adulterated with various substances of vegetable and inorganic origin like fibres of the horsemeat, sliced onion skin or coloured chalk etc. The common adulterants of saffron are ligulate florets or carpels of calendula officinalis (feminell), dyed with methyl orange or a red dye, lingulate corollas of marigold and tubular florets of carthamus are sold as substitutes for pure saffron.

HOME REMEDY

 

Kesar applied as paste pacify to cold

 

PRODUCTION

Normally 1Kg styles with stigma can be obtained from the 1 acre crop. Even India is second largest producer of the Kesar in the world but the productivity is very poor as comparison to Iran and Spain.

KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGY

Hehneman Charitable Mission Society, Jaipur is giving consultancy at nominal charges to the farmers with buy back agreement from reputed traders.

PLANTING MATERIAL:-

A good quality of the planting material is provided by Sunrise AGRILAND DEVELOPMENT and REsearch Pvt LIMITED, jaipur at affordable rates. Please contact to M/S-Sunrise Agriland Development Research (Pvt.) Limited, 301, Mahaveer Nagar-II, Maharni Farm, Durgapura Jaipur. Contact No- +91-0141-5139005 all the material is propagated and raised under close supervision of the agriculturist. 

BUY BACK

The company provide buy back guarantee to the grower. The grower is free to from the tension of marketing. Please contact to M/S-Sunrise Agriland Development Research (Pvt.) Limited, 301, Mahaveer Nagar-II, Maharni Farm, Durgapura Jaipur. Contact No- +91-0141-5139005 the buyback is done at pre-decided rate. The buy back is given on Rs 100 Stamp Paper.

 
 
SAVE TREES
SAVE ENVIRONMENT
SAVE EARTH