KARANJA PLANT
1326906574r57.php Pongamia is one of the most suitable species found in india. Due to its various favourable dimensions like hardy nature, high oil recovery and quality of oil, we can supply quality pongamia pinata seeds as per the clients' demands. Pongamia is often planted in home steads as a shade or ornamental tree and in avenue plantings along roadsides and canals. It is a preferred species for controlling soil erosion and binding sand dunes because of its dense network of lateral roots. Its root, bark, leaf, sap, and flower also have medicinal properties. Applications: • Crushed seeds and leaves have antiseptic properties and contains pongam oil, non-edible oil. • Used for lubrication and indigenous medicine. • Largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil commercially known as ‘karanja oil’ which is well organised for its medicinal properties. • Its oil is used as fuel for cooking and is also used as a water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries. • It is also effective in enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies. • The pongamia cake is used as a poultry feed. • Its dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains.
 




KARANJA

Botanical Name :   Pongamia glabra
Sanskrit Name:      Karanja             
English Name :      Pongam Oil Tree, Indian Beech
Family :                 Fabaceae                            
Part used:              Roots, Leaf, Flower, Seed, Fruit   

 

INTRODUCTION:

It is a deciduous tree that grows to about 15-25 meters in height with a large canopy that spreads equally wide. The leaves are a soft, shiny burgundy in early summer and mature to a glossy, deep green as the season progresses. Small clusters of white, purple, and pink flowers blossom on their branches throughout the year, maturing into brown seed pods. The tree is well suited to intense heat and sunlight and its dense network of lateral roots and its thick, long taproot make it drought tolerant.

Pongamia  is one of the most suitable species found in india. Due to its various favourable dimensions like hardy nature, high oil recovery and quality of oil, we can supply quality pongamia pinata seeds as per the clients' demands. Pongamia is often planted in home steads as a shade or ornamental tree and in avenue plantings along roadsides and canals. It is a preferred species for controlling soil erosion and binding sand dunes because of its dense network of lateral roots. Its root, bark, leaf, sap, and flower also have medicinal properties.

Ecology:

Native to humid and subtropical environments, pongam thrives in areas having an annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 2500 mm. In its natural habitat, the maximum temperature ranges from 27 to 38oC and the minimum 1 to16oC. Mature trees can withstand water logging and slight frost. This specie grows to elevations of 1200 meters, but in the Himalayan foothills is not found above 600 meters.

Pongam can grow on most soil types ranging from stony to sandy to clay. It does not do well on dry sands. It is highly tolerant of salinity. It is common along waterways or seashores, with its roots in fresh or salt water. Highest growth rates are observed on well drained soils with assured moisture. Natural reproduction is profuse by seed and common by root suckers.







Distribution:

 The natural distribution of pongam is along coasts and river banks in India and Burma. Native to the Asian subcontinent, this species has been introduced to humid tropical lowlands in Malaysia, Australia, the Seychelles, the United States and Indonesia

Cultivation practices

Planting of seedlings can be done with the onset of rains in May-June or Sept-October. Seed viability is high, but the hard seed coat posses dormancy. To hasten germination seeds are to be dipped in concentrated sulfuric acid for four minutes and then washed or put in hot water at 80ºC for four minutes. The seeds should be sundried afterwards for about one hour before sowing.

A seed rate of 3-4 kg/ha is recommended. Sowing is preferably done during February-March in a nursery or in polythene bags or in situ at 2-3 cm depth. Seedlings (1.5 to 3 months old with 6-8 leaves) are planted in the main field. A spacing of 1 x 0.1 m is recommended for a pure crop of fodder, 1.5 x 0.2 m for planting in boundaries and borders of coconut gardens and 2 x 0.2 m when raised along boundaries.

Planting Material

Methods of propagation for raising plantation are :

(i)           Direct sowing of seeds; (ii) Bag Plantation; (iii) Naked seedlings collected from existing plantation regeneration.

Spacing adopted

The most common spacing adopted are 1.27m x 1.27m (50” x 50”) (i.e. 6200 plants/ha);  2m x 2m (2500 Pl/ha);  3 x 1.5m  (2222 plants/ha). However, the recommended spacing is 1.5m x 1.5m (4445 Pl/ha). Inter cultivation may not be possible from second year onwards.

Weeding / Soil working

Two weedings / soil working are required per year for the first 3 years of sowing / planting.

 

 

Pests and diseases

Subabul generally has been free of serious insect & diseases, but is susceptible to jumping plant lice (psyllids) which have caused serious defoliation and mortality in some areas. Some varieties are susceptible to gummosis, which is most likely caused by Fusarium or Phytophtora species. Leaf spot fungus also can cause defoliation under wet conditions.

 


Applications:

  • Crushed seeds and leaves have antiseptic properties and contains pongam oil, non-edible oil.
  • Used for lubrication and indigenous medicine.
  • Largely exploited for extraction of a non-edible oil commercially known as ‘karanja oil’ which is well organised for its medicinal properties.
  • Its oil is used as fuel for cooking and is also used as a water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries.
  • It is also effective in enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies.
  • The pongamia cake is used as a poultry feed.
  • Its dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains.

 

  • Uses:

The pongamia tree is cultivated for two purposes:

(1)  As an ornamental in gardens and along avenues and roadsides, for                     its fragrant Wisteria-like flowers

 (2) As a host plant for lac insects.

 It is appreciated as an ornamental throughout coastal India and all of Polynesia. Well-decomposed flowers are used by gardeners as compost for plants requiring rich nutrients. In the Philippines the bark is used for making strings and ropes. The bark also yields a black gum that is used to treat wounds caused by poisonous fish. In wet areas of the tropics the leaves serve as green manure and as fodder. The black malodorous roots contain a potent fish-stupefying principle. In primitive areas of Malaysia and India root extracts are applied to abscesses; other plant parts, especially crushed seeds and leaves are regarded as having antiseptic properties. The seeds contain pongam oil, a bitter, red brown, thick, non-drying, nonedible oil, 27–36% by weight, which is used for tanning leather, soap, as a liniment to treat scabies, herpes, and rheumatism and as an illuminating oil (Burkill, 1966). Also used for lubrication and indigenous medicine.

 Pongam oil showed inhibitory effects on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pulilus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas mangiferae, Salmonella typhi, Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Xanthomonas campestris, but did not inhibit Shigella sp. (Chaurasia and Jain, 1978). The oil has a high content of triglycerides, and its disagreeable taste and odor are due to bitter flavonoid constituents, pongamiin and karanjin. The wood is yellowish white, coarse, hard, and beautifully grained, but is not durable. Use of the wood is limited to cabinetmaking, cart wheels, posts, and fuel (Allen and Allen, 1981). Both the oil and residues are toxic. Still the presscake is described as a "useful poultry feed." Seeds are used to poison fish. Still it is recommended as a shade tree for pastures and windbreak for tea. The leaves are said to be a valuable lactagogue fodder, especially in arid regions. It is sometimes intercropped with pasture, the pasture grasses said to grow well in its shade (NAS, 1980a). Dried pongam leaves are used in stored grains to repel insects. Leaves often plowed green manure, thought to reduce nematode infestations. Its into ground as spreading roots make it valuable for checking erosion and stabilizing dunes. Twigs are used as a chewstick for cleaning the teeth. The ash of the wood is used in dyeing.

                             


 
 
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